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Employee Benefits Survey
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Defined benefit retirement plans: Open, soft and hard frozen plans

Table 5. Defined benefit retirement plans: Open, soft and hard freeze plans, civilian
workers,1 March 2018
(All workers participating in defined benefit plans = 100 percent)
Characteristics Open plans2 Soft freeze3 Hard freeze4
All
participants
still accruing
benefits
Some
participants
still accruing
benefits
All workers
52
39
2
7
Worker characteristics
       
Management, professional, and related
47
44
2
8
    Management, business, and financial
52
32
2
14
    Professional and related
45
48
2
5
        Teachers
43
56
            Primary, secondary, and special education
             school teachers
44
55
        Registered nurses
49
35
Service
55
41
1
4
    Protective service
51
48
Sales and office
52
37
1
10
    Sales and related
57
22
1
19
    Office and administrative support
51
39
1
8
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance
71
25
1
3
    Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and
     forestry
83
15
    Installation, maintenance, and repair
56
37
3
4
Production, transportation, and material moving
59
29
3
9
    Production
44
36
2
18
    Transportation and material moving
68
24
4
4
Full time
51
39
2
8
Part time
62
34
Union
57
41
1
2
Nonunion
49
37
3
12
Average wage within the following categories:5
       
    Lowest 25 percent
57
36
        Lowest 10 percent
72
24
    Second 25 percent
57
34
2
7
    Third 25 percent
53
38
2
7
    Highest 25 percent
49
42
2
8
        Highest 10 percent
46
42
2
10
Establishment characteristics
       
Goods-producing industries
56
25
5
13
Service-providing industries
52
41
1
6
    Education and health services
47
49
1
3
        Educational services
43
56
            Elementary and secondary schools
43
56
            Junior colleges, colleges, and universities
41
58
        Health care and social assistance
58
29
            Hospitals
52
31
    Public administration
43
56
1 to 99 workers
57
35
1
7
    1 to 49 workers
57
32
1
10
    50 to 99 workers
56
38
100 workers or more
51
40
2
7
    100 to 499 workers
58
34
3
5
    500 workers or more
47
43
2
8
Geographic areas
       
Northeast
49
41
1
8
    New England
55
37
1
7
    Middle Atlantic
47
42
1
9
South
53
40
2
6
    South Atlantic
59
32
3
7
    East South Central
45
52
    West South Central
46
47
Midwest
57
32
2
9
    East North Central
57
31
3
9
    West North Central
57
33
West
50
42
2
7
    Mountain
49
43
    Pacific
50
42
2
7
1Includes workers in private industry and state and local government. See Technical Note for further explanation.
2Plans open to new participants.
3New employees are not allowed in the plan. Benefit accruals may continue for existing participants.
4Participants in these plans stop accruing benefits on the date the plan is frozen. The benefit the employee receives is
calculated as of the day the plan was frozen.
5Surveyed occupations are classified into wage categories based on the average wage for the occupation, which may
include workers with earnings both above and below the threshold. The categories were formed using percentile estimates
generated using wage data for March 2018.

Note: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals. Dash indicates no workers in this category or data did
not meet publication criteria. For definitions of major plans, key provisions, and related terms, see the "Glossary of Employee
Benefit Terms" at www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs/national-compensation-survey-glossary-of-employee-benefit-terms.htm.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.