Defined benefit retirement plans: Open, soft and hard frozen plans

Table 5. Defined benefit retirement plans: Open, soft and hard freeze plans, private
industry workers, March 2018
(All workers participating in defined benefit plans = 100 percent)
Characteristics Open plans1 Soft freeze2 Hard freeze3
All
participants
still accruing
benefits
Some
participants
still accruing
benefits
All workers
61
22
3
14
Worker characteristics
       
Management, professional, and related
54
23
4
19
    Management, business, and financial
58
17
3
21
    Professional and related
51
27
5
17
Service
75
    Protective service
83
Sales and office
57
24
2
17
    Sales and related
58
20
2
20
    Office and administrative support
56
25
3
16
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance
77
17
2
4
    Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and
     forestry
92
4
    Installation, maintenance, and repair
58
33
3
5
Production, transportation, and material moving
61
24
4
11
    Production
44
34
3
19
    Transportation and material moving
74
17
4
5
Full time
60
22
3
15
Part time
69
23
Union
78
17
1
4
Nonunion
49
25
5
21
Average wage within the following categories:4
       
    Lowest 25 percent
67
20
        Lowest 10 percent
88
    Second 25 percent
64
18
4
14
    Third 25 percent
61
22
3
14
    Highest 25 percent
59
23
3
14
        Highest 10 percent
57
22
4
17
Establishment characteristics
       
Goods-producing industries
57
23
6
14
    Construction
98
    Manufacturing
38
34
8
19
Service-providing industries
62
21
2
14
    Trade, transportation, and utilities
70
24
2
4
        Wholesale trade
68
21
        Retail trade
66
29
        Transportation and warehousing
75
20
        Utilities
61
30
3
5
    Information
33
49
    Financial activities
53
17
2
28
        Finance and insurance
50
18
2
30
            Credit intermediation and related activities
50
15
3
33
            Insurance carriers and related activities
62
22
1
15
        Real estate and rental and leasing
96
    Professional and business services
62
17
        Professional and technical services
75
    Education and health services
62
21
        Educational services
58
32
            Junior colleges, colleges, and universities
65
        Health care and social assistance
62
19
    Leisure and hospitality
93
        Accommodation and food services
100
    Other services
81
1 to 99 workers
66
18
2
14
    1 to 49 workers
64
18
1
17
    50 to 99 workers
68
19
100 workers or more
59
23
4
14
    100 to 499 workers
65
21
4
10
    500 workers or more
55
24
3
17
Geographic areas
       
Northeast
64
20
2
14
    New England
68
20
    Middle Atlantic
63
20
2
15
South
58
25
4
13
    South Atlantic
60
22
5
13
    East South Central
56
37
    West South Central
57
24
Midwest
61
20
4
15
    East North Central
61
20
4
15
    West North Central
62
20
West
60
23
3
14
    Mountain
60
23
    Pacific
60
23
4
14
1Plans open to new participants.
2New employees are not allowed in the plan. Benefit accruals may continue for existing participants.
3Participants in these plans stop accruing benefits on the date the plan is frozen. The benefit the employee receives is
calculated as of the day the plan was frozen.
4Surveyed occupations are classified into wage categories based on the average wage for the occupation, which may
include workers with earnings both above and below the threshold. The categories were formed using percentile estimates
generated using wage data for March 2018.

Note: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals. Dash indicates no workers in this category or data did
not meet publication criteria. For definitions of major plans, key provisions, and related terms, see the "Glossary of Employee
Benefit Terms" at www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs/national-compensation-survey-glossary-of-employee-benefit-terms.htm.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey.