Factors affecting occupational utilization

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Table 1.12 Factors affecting occupational utilization, projected 2018—28

Occupation Title

Occupation Code

Industry Title

Industry Code

Factors affecting occupational utilization

Chief executives

11-1011

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as changing organizational structures allow fewer chief executives to manage the day-to-day operations of an organization.

Advertising and promotions managers

11-2011

Automobile dealers

441100

Productivity change - share decreases as consolidation of back office jobs allows same amount of output to be produced by fewer advertising and promotions managers.

Marketing managers

11-2021

Automobile dealers

441100

Productivity change - share decreases as consolidation of back office functions allow the same amount of output to be produced by fewer advertising managers.

Financial managers

11-3031

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share increases as several economic trends, including a greater emphasis on risk management and increases in corporate cash holdings, will increase demand for financial managers.

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

11-3071

Couriers and express delivery services

492100

Demand change - share decreases as mergers reduce the number of transportation, storage, and distribution managers.

Compensation and benefits managers

11-3111

Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services

541200

Sourcing change - share increases as compensation and benefits research and analysis is outsourced to this industry.

Compensation and benefits managers

11-3111

Total employment

TE1000

Sourcing change - share decreases as compensation and benefits activities continue to be outsourced.

Food service managers

11-9051

Elementary and secondary schools; local

611103

Sourcing change - share decreases as the use of food contractors increases.

Food service managers

11-9051

Continuing care retirement communities and assisted living facilities for the elderly

623300

Demand change - share increases as the demand for this type of facility increases due to the aging population.

Medical and health services managers

11-9111

Offices of physicians

621100

Demand change - share increases as offices of physicians utilizes broader team structures which will require increased use of specialized management.

Postmasters and mail superintendents

11-9131

Postal service

491000

Demand change - share decreases as the number of post office managed retail offices continues to decline.

Buyers and purchasing agents

13-1020

State government, excluding education and hospitals

999200

Capital/labor substitution, productivity change - share decreases as new technology allows organizations to automate tactical, routine procurement tasks once done by these workers. In addition, the increasing use of cooperative purchasing agreements in the public sector will allow localities to use fewer resources and staff to complete routine procurement functions.

Buyers and purchasing agents

13-1020

Local government, excluding education and hospitals

999300

Capital/labor substitution, productivity change - share decreases as new technology allows organizations to automate tactical, routine procurement tasks once done by these workers. In addition, the increasing use of cooperative purchasing agreements in the public sector will allow localities to use fewer resources and staff to complete routine procurement functions.

Buyers and purchasing agents

13-1020

Total employment

TE1000

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as new technology allows organizations to automate tactical, routine procurement tasks once done by these workers.

Claims adjusters, examiners, and investigators

13-1031

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as computer software will automate much of this work, reducing the needed number of adjusters.

Human resources specialists

13-1071

Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services

541200

Demand change - share increases as companies contract HR services.

Human resources specialists

13-1071

Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

541600

Demand change - share increases as companies contract HR services.

Human resources specialists

13-1071

Office administrative services

561100

Demand change - share increases as companies contract HR services.

Human resources specialists

13-1071

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share decreases as companies contract human resources services from human resources services firms and rely on software for more perfunctory HR activities.

Labor relations specialists

13-1075

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share decreases as the percentage of workers who are union members declines, and fewer unionized workers means less need for labor relations specialists work with management on their behalf.

Management analysts

13-1111

Federal government, excluding postal service

999100

Demand change - share increases as government agencies increasingly seek the expertise of public sector consultants.

Management analysts

13-1111

State government, excluding education and hospitals

999200

Demand change - share increases as government agencies increasingly seek the expertise of public sector consultants.

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

13-1141

Insurance agencies and brokerages

524210

Sourcing change - share increases as benefits management, research, and analysis is outsourced to this industry.

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

13-1141

Other insurance related activities

524290

Sourcing change - share increases as benefits management, research, and analysis is outsourced to this industry.

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

13-1141

Insurance and employee benefit funds

525100

Sourcing change - share increases as benefits management, research, and analysis is outsourced to this industry.

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

13-1141

Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

541600

Sourcing change - share increases as benefits management, research, and analysis is outsourced to this industry.

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

13-1141

Management of companies and enterprises

551000

Sourcing change - share increases as benefits management, research, and analysis is outsourced to this industry.

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

13-1141

Total employment

TE1000

Sourcing change - share decreases as the outsourcing of benefits management, research, and analysis continues.

Training and development specialists

13-1151

Computer systems design and related services

541500

Sourcing change - share increases as companies increasingly purchase third-party training materials rather than developing them in-house.

Training and development specialists

13-1151

Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

541600

Sourcing change - share increases as companies increasingly purchase third-party training materials rather than developing them in-house.

Training and development specialists

13-1151

Office administrative services

561100

Sourcing change - share increases as companies increasingly purchase third-party training materials rather than developing them in-house.

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

13-1161

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share increases as businesses will need market research analysts to analyze the increasing amounts of data collected in order to support and improve business decisions.

Personal financial advisors

13-2052

Credit intermediation and related activities (5221,3)

5220A1

Demand change - share increases as demand for investment advisory services should outpace other areas of financial services (including checking services in commercial banks) due to retirement of baby boomers.

Personal financial advisors

13-2052

Securities, commodity contracts, and other financial investments and related activities

523000

Demand change - share increases as demand for investment advisory services should outpace other areas of financial services (including checking services in commercial banks) due to retirement of baby boomers.

Insurance underwriters

13-2053

Direct health and medical insurance carriers

524114

Productivity change — share decreases as automated underwriting systems will allow more applications to be handled by computer processing, reducing the needed number of insurance underwriters.

Insurance underwriters

13-2053

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change — share decreases as automated underwriting systems will allow more applications to be handled by computer processing, reducing the needed number of insurance underwriters.

Financial examiners

13-2061

Credit intermediation and related activities (5221,3)

5220A1

Demand change - share increases as financial institutions will devote more resources to regulatory compliance, including the hiring of financial examiners.

Financial examiners

13-2061

Other nondepository credit intermediation

522290

Demand change - share increases as financial institutions will devote more resources to regulatory compliance, including the hiring of financial examiners.

Financial examiners

13-2061

Securities, commodity contracts, and other financial investments and related activities

523000

Demand change - share increases as financial institutions will devote more resources to regulatory compliance, including the hiring of financial examiners.

Financial examiners

13-2061

Management of companies and enterprises

551000

Demand change - share increases as financial institutions will devote more resources to regulatory compliance, including the hiring of financial examiners.

Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

13-2081

Federal government, excluding postal service

999100

Demand change - share decreases as IRS budget cuts continue to restrict employment of these workers more severely than for others in federal government.

Computer and information research scientists

15-1111

Software publishers

511200

Demand change - share increases as demand for digital devices increases.

Computer and information research scientists

15-1111

Computer systems design and related services

541500

Demand change - share increases as demand for digital devices increases.

Computer and information research scientists

15-1111

Research and development in the physical, engineering, and life sciences

541710

Demand change - share increases as demand for digital devices increases.

Computer systems analysts

15-1121

Direct insurance (except life, health, and medical) carriers

524120

Demand change - share increases as companies require new technologies (chatbots, natural language, image, processing and machine learning) to support digitalization and automation of work processes.

Computer systems analysts

15-1121

Total employment

TE1000

Sourcing change - share decreases as firms and organizations in non-IT and related industries take advantage of the economies of scale afforded by cloud computing. These firms will also increasingly contract their IT needs as a way of cutting costs.

Information security analysts

15-1122

Data processing, hosting, and related services

518000

Demand change - share increases as firms increase their IT security staffs and capabilities as a response to increasing threats of cyber-attacks aimed at sensitive or financial data.

Information security analysts

15-1122

Credit intermediation and related activities (5221,3)

5220A1

Demand change - share increases as firms increase their IT security staffs and capabilities as a response to increasing threats of cyber attacks aimed at sensitive or financial data.

Information security analysts

15-1122

Direct health and medical insurance carriers

524114

Demand change - share increases as firms increase their IT security staffs and capabilities as a response to increasing threats of cyber attacks aimed at sensitive or financial data.

Information security analysts

15-1122

Direct insurance (except life, health, and medical) carriers

524120

Demand change - share increases as firms increase their IT security staffs and capabilities as a response to increasing threats of cyber attacks aimed at sensitive or financial data.

Information security analysts

15-1122

Computer systems design and related services

541500

Demand change - share increases as firms increase their IT security staffs and capabilities as a response to increasing threats of cyber attacks aimed at sensitive or financial data.

Information security analysts

15-1122

Management of companies and enterprises

551000

Demand change - share increases as firms increase their IT security staffs and capabilities as a response to increasing threats of cyber attacks aimed at sensitive or financial data.

Information security analysts

15-1122

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share increases as firms increase their IT security staffs and capabilities as a response to increasing threats of cyber attacks aimed at sensitive or financial data.

Computer programmers

15-1131

Total employment

TE1000

Sourcing change - share decreases as computer programming work continues to be offshored as a way to control costs.

Software developers, applications

15-1132

Direct health and medical insurance carriers

524114

Demand change - share increases as an increase in adoption of new technologies (chatbots, natural language, image, processing and machine learning) creates demand for application software development.

Software developers, applications

15-1132

Direct insurance (except life, health, and medical) carriers

524120

Demand change - share increases as an increase in adoption of new technologies (chatbots, natural language, image, processing and machine learning) creates demand for application software development.

Software developers, applications

15-1132

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share increases as more devices include software components and are connected to the internet. Application developers will be needed to design, create, and implement software to run on a wide variety of devices, from cars to household appliances to medical devices.

Network and computer systems administrators

15-1142

Total employment

TE1000

Sourcing change - share decreases as firms and organizations in non-IT and related industries take advantage of the economies of scale afforded by cloud computing. These firms will also increasingly contract their IT needs as a way of cutting costs.

Computer network architects

15-1143

Total employment

TE1000

Sourcing change - share decreases as firms and organizations in non-IT and related industries take advantage of the economies of scale afforded by cloud computing. These firms will also increasingly contract their IT needs as a way of cutting costs.

Actuaries

15-2011

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share increases as a greater emphasis on identifying, quantifying, and managing risks leads to greater demand for actuaries to analyze the financial costs of risks and uncertainty.

Mathematicians

15-2021

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share increases as larger amounts of digital and electronic data are collected over the next decade. Businesses in all industries will hire mathematicians to analyze data to help improve business processes and design and develop new products.

Operations research analysts

15-2031

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share increases as larger amounts of digital and electronic data are collected over the next decade. Businesses in all industries will hire operations research analysts to analyze data to help optimize and improve business processes.

Statisticians

15-2041

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share increases as larger amounts of digital and electronic data are collected over the next decade. Businesses in all industries will hire statisticians to analyze data to help improve business processes and design and develop new products.

Architects, except landscape and naval

17-1011

Engineering services

541330

Occupational substitution - share increases as architects take on the duties formerly performed by architectural paraprofessionals.

Cartographers and photogrammetrists

17-1021

Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

541600

Sourcing change - share increases as intelligence agencies hire contractors to perform GIS related services.

Cartographers and photogrammetrists

17-1021

Local government, excluding education and hospitals

999300

Demand change - share increases as local governments expand available mapping and GIS products.

Aerospace engineers

17-2011

Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing

334500

Demand change - share increases as aerospace engineers are needed in developing new technologies stemming from wider commercial use of small satellites and drones.

Chemical engineers

17-2041

Chemical manufacturing (3251,2,3,9)

3250A1

Demand change - share increases as firms in this industry continue hiring disproportionately more chemical engineers to implement new manufacturing processes for producing new outputs resulting from developments in such fields as biomaterials and synthetic biology.

Chemical engineers

17-2041

Engineering services

541330

Demand change - share increases as firms in this industry continue hiring disproportionately more chemical engineers to help clients of these firms implement new developments in such fields as biomaterials, biomedical engineering, bioprocessing, industrial biotechnology, etc.

Electrical engineers

17-2071

Semiconductor and other electronic component manufacturing

334400

Demand change - share increases as firms require new materials and architecture for semiconductor chips, in response to the expansion of the Internet of Things and increasing automation of production processes.

Electrical engineers

17-2071

Engineering services

541330

Demand change - share increases as firms provide feasibility studies, plans, technical services, and cybersecurity to support investments in power grids.

Electronics engineers, except computer

17-2072

Semiconductor and other electronic component manufacturing

334400

Demand change - share increases as firms their output of semiconductor chips, in response to the expansion of the Internet of Things and increasing automation of production processes.

Electronics engineers, except computer

17-2072

Telecommunications

517000

Demand change - share increases as firms in this industry take on more electronics engineers to meet rising demand regarding cyber security and communications security.

Environmental engineers

17-2081

Engineering services

541330

Demand change - share decreases as firms face less demand to work on environmental engineering projects owing to likelihood of declining resources available for such projects.

Environmental engineers

17-2081

Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

541600

Demand change - share decreases as firms face less demand to work on environmental engineering projects owing to likelihood of declining resources available for such projects.

Industrial engineers

17-2112

Pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing

325400

Demand change - share increases as this occupation provides expertise in lean operations and supply chains to remain competitive through adoption of automation.

Industrial engineers

17-2112

Fabricated metal product manufacturing (3321,2,5,6,9)

3320A1

Demand change - share increases as this occupation provides expertise in lean operations and supply chains to remain competitive through adoption of automation.

Industrial engineers

17-2112

Machinery manufacturing (3331,2,4,9)

3330A1

Demand change - share increases as this occupation provides expertise in lean operations and supply chains to remain competitive through adoption of automation.

Industrial engineers

17-2112

Metalworking machinery manufacturing

333500

Demand change - share increases as this occupation provides expertise in lean operations and supply chains to remain competitive through adoption of automation.

Industrial engineers

17-2112

Engine, turbine, and power transmission equipment manufacturing

333600

Demand change - share increases as this occupation provides expertise in lean operations and supply chains to remain competitive through adoption of automation.

Industrial engineers

17-2112

Communications equipment manufacturing

334200

Demand change - share increases as this occupation provides expertise in lean operations and supply chains to remain competitive through adoption of automation.

Industrial engineers

17-2112

Semiconductor and other electronic component manufacturing

334400

Demand change - share increases as this occupation provides expertise in lean operations and supply chains to remain competitive through adoption of automation.

Industrial engineers

17-2112

Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing

334500

Demand change - share increases as this occupation provides expertise in lean operations and supply chains to remain competitive through adoption of automation.

Industrial engineers

17-2112

Electrical equipment manufacturing

335300

Demand change - share increases as this occupation provides expertise in lean operations and supply chains to remain competitive through adoption of automation.

Industrial engineers

17-2112

Motor vehicle manufacturing

336100

Demand change - share increases as this occupation provides expertise in lean operations and supply chains to remain competitive through adoption of automation.

Industrial engineers

17-2112

Motor vehicle parts manufacturing

336300

Demand change - share increases as this occupation provides expertise in lean operations and supply chains to remain competitive through adoption of automation.

Industrial engineers

17-2112

Aerospace product and parts manufacturing

336400

Demand change - share increases as these engineers are needed to construct supply chains that enable firms to procure components from multiple sources, either abroad or domestic, and to provide expertise in building automated factories.

Industrial engineers

17-2112

Medical equipment and supplies manufacturing

339100

Demand change - share increases as this occupation provides expertise in lean operations and supply chains to remain competitive through adoption of automation.

Industrial engineers

17-2112

Engineering services

541330

Demand change - share increases as this occupation provides expertise with respect to automation, constructing supply chains, and 3-D printing.

Marine engineers and naval architects

17-2121

Engineering services

541330

Demand change - share increases as this occupation provides expertise in construction of offshore wind platforms.

Mechanical engineers

17-2141

Machinery manufacturing (3331,2,4,9)

3330A1

Sourcing change - share increases as the growing use of automation, sensors, and robots in industrial uses will lead to the adoption of automation for reducing labor costs.

Mechanical engineers

17-2141

Metalworking machinery manufacturing

333500

Sourcing change - share increases as the growing use of automation, sensors, and robots in industrial uses and this industry will lead to the adoption of automation for reducing labor costs.

Mechanical engineers

17-2141

Motor vehicle parts manufacturing

336300

Sourcing change - share increases as the growing use of automation, sensors, and robots in industrial uses will lead to the adoption of automation for reducing labor costs.

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

17-2151

Oil and gas extraction

211000

Sourcing change - share decreases as mining firms reduce costs by contracting out exploration, design, and production activities.

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

17-2151

Coal mining

212100

Sourcing change - share decreases as mining firms reduce costs by contracting out exploration, design, and production activities.

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

17-2151

Metal ore mining

212200

Sourcing change - share decreases as mining firms reduce costs by contracting out exploration, design, and production activities.

Architectural and civil drafters

17-3011

Engineering services

541330

Occupational substitution - share decreases as professionals such as architects take on more of the design activities once provided by drafters.

Mechanical drafters

17-3013

Total employment

TE1000

Occupational substitution - share decreases as technology makes design process more efficient and allows mechanical engineers to perform design tasks once done only by drafters.

Aerospace engineering and operations technicians

17-3021

Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing

334500

Demand change - share increases as new aerospace products such as small satellites and drones require testing to comply with FAA regulations.

Aerospace engineering and operations technicians

17-3021

Engineering services

541330

Demand change - share increases as new aerospace products such as small satellites and drones require testing to comply with FAA regulations.

Surveying and mapping technicians

17-3031

Oil and gas extraction

211000

Demand change, occupational substitution - share increases as oil and gas extraction firms utilize more surveying technology and need more surveying technicians to gather data.

Physicists

19-2012

Research and development in the physical, engineering, and life sciences

541710

Demand change - share increases as this occupation is increasingly tapped to put into development many new applications due to breakthroughs in graphene, such as desalinization and battery storage.

Chemists

19-2031

Chemical manufacturing (3251,2,3,9)

3250A1

Demand change - share increases as chemists are tasked to increase safety of workplaces and of surrounding communities through implementation of green chemistry. Share will also increase as more chemists are needed to help implement new findings coming out of research and development.

Chemists

19-2031

Pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing

325400

Demand change - share increases as chemists are tasked to harness findings in nano-technology for medical purposes.

Chemists

19-2031

Research and development in the physical, engineering, and life sciences

541710

Demand change - share decreases as federal funding for research and development in chemistry is expected to continue to decline.

Survey researchers

19-3022

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as data collection increasingly occurs via mobile technologies and automated techniques.

Urban and regional planners

19-3051

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share increases as demand for improved transportation flow leads to increased transportation spending requiring more urban and regional planners.

Forensic science technicians

19-4092

State government, excluding education and hospitals

999200

Demand change - share increases as case loads increase and DNA evidence becomes more common.

Forensic science technicians

19-4092

Local government, excluding education and hospitals

999300

Demand change - share increases as case loads increase and DNA evidence becomes more common.

Educational, guidance, school, and vocational counselors

21-1012

Colleges, universities, and professional schools; state

611302

Demand change - share increases as more departments add career counselors to help students get jobs.

Educational, guidance, school, and vocational counselors

21-1012

Colleges, universities, and professional schools; private

611305

Demand change - share increases as more departments add career counselors to help students get jobs.

Substance abuse, behavioral disorder, and mental health counselors

21-1018

Offices of mental health practitioners (except physicians)

621330

Demand change - share increases as demand rises for treatment of patients with mental and behavioral issues, including opioid addiction.

Directors, religious activities and education

21-2021

Elementary and secondary schools; local

611103

Demand change - share increases as more families are able to choose religious based schools.

Lawyers

23-1011

Total employment

TE1000

Sourcing change - share increases as companies insource their legal needs from outside law firms to their own in-house legal departments as a way to cut down on costs.

Paralegals and legal assistants

23-2011

Legal services

541100

Occupational substitution - share increases as paralegals increasingly take on the duties previously assigned to legal secretaries and some entry-level attorneys.

Paralegals and legal assistants

23-2011

Total employment

TE1000

Sourcing change, occupational substitution - share increases as companies increasingly insource their legal needs from outside law firms to their own in-house legal departments as a way to cut down on costs. In addition, paralegals will take on more of the tasks previously assigned to legal secretaries and entry-level attorneys.

Title examiners, abstractors, and searchers

23-2093

Legal services

541100

Sourcing change - share decreases as law firms outsource an increasing amount of back office, administrative, and non-lawyer functions as a way to streamline operations and lower costs for clients.

Legal support workers, all other

23-2099

Legal services

541100

Sourcing change - share decreases as law firms outsource an increasing amount of back office, administrative, and non-lawyer functions as a way to streamline operations and lower costs for clients.

Business teachers, postsecondary

25-1011

Colleges, universities, and professional schools; state

611302

Demand change - share increases as demand for business degrees is expected to increase.

Business teachers, postsecondary

25-1011

Colleges, universities, and professional schools; private

611305

Demand change - share increases as demand for business degrees is expected to increase.

Engineering teachers, postsecondary

25-1032

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share increases as demand for engineering degrees is expected to increase.

Biological science teachers, postsecondary

25-1042

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share increases as demand for biology degrees is expected to increase.

Psychology teachers, postsecondary

25-1066

Colleges, universities, and professional schools; state

611302

Demand change - share increases as demand for psychology degrees is expected to increase.

Psychology teachers, postsecondary

25-1066

Colleges, universities, and professional schools; private

611305

Demand change - share increases as demand for psychology degrees is expected to increase.

Health specialties teachers, postsecondary

25-1071

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share increases as demand for health specialty degrees is expected to increase.

Nursing instructors and teachers, postsecondary

25-1072

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share increases as demand for nursing degrees is expected to increase.

Criminal justice and law enforcement teachers, postsecondary

25-1111

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share increases as demand for criminal justice degrees is expected to increase.

Adult basic and secondary education and literacy teachers and instructors

25-3011

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share decreases as enrollment rates in ABE and ESL classes are expected to decline due to rising high school graduation rates, which will reduce the need for these types of teachers.

Library technicians

25-4031

Other information services

519000

Demand change - share decreases as library usage declines.

Library technicians

25-4031

Elementary and secondary schools; local

611103

Demand change - share decreases as library usage declines.

Library technicians

25-4031

Junior colleges; state

611202

Demand change - share decreases as library usage declines.

Library technicians

25-4031

Junior colleges; local

611203

Demand change - share decreases as library usage declines.

Library technicians

25-4031

Colleges, universities, and professional schools; state

611302

Demand change - share decreases as library usage declines.

Library technicians

25-4031

Colleges, universities, and professional schools; private

611305

Demand change - share decreases as library usage declines.

Library technicians

25-4031

Local government, excluding education and hospitals

999300

Demand change - share decreases as library usage declines.

Multimedia artists and animators

27-1014

Television broadcasting

515120

Productivity change - share decreases as local television broadcast affiliates consolidate and share staff in order to reduce operating costs. Using shared staff, including artists and animators, to produce news reports for two stations will require fewer of them as they are more productive.

Producers and directors

27-2012

Sound recording industries

512200

Productivity change - share increases as advances in technology allow for more, smaller, studios. As a studio must, at minimum, have a producer, their share will grow faster than that of other occupations in the industry.

Producers and directors

27-2012

Advertising, public relations, and related services

541800

Demand change - share increases as more filmed content leads to additional commercials and advertising, particularly online video ads, which also need to be produced and directed.

Choreographers

27-2032

Other schools and instruction; private

611605

Sourcing change - share decreases as more choreographers turn to freelance opportunities and self-employment for work, instead of careers at dance studios, performance arts companies, and elsewhere.

Music directors and composers

27-2041

Elementary and secondary schools; local

611103

Demand change - share decreases as public school systems are cutting funding for arts education, including music programs.

Music directors and composers

27-2041

Elementary and secondary schools; private

611105

Demand change - share decreases as private schools face decline in enrollment and tuition, forcing cuts for arts education, including music programs.

Radio and television announcers

27-3011

Radio broadcasting

515110

Demand change - share decreases as demand for announcers and on-air talent is decreasing as many radio stations are consolidating locations or opting for a DJ-free format.

Writers and authors

27-3043

Television broadcasting

515120

Productivity change - share decreases as local television broadcast affiliates consolidate and share staff in order to reduce operating costs. Using shared staff, including writers, to produce news reports for two stations will require fewer of them as they are more productive.

Writers and authors

27-3043

Independent artists, writers, and performers

711500

Sourcing change - share increases as independent writers perform more freelance work for newspapers, magazines, and other media outlets.

Interpreters and translators

27-3091

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share increases as many businesses increasingly need translation services as the United States population becomes more globalized and diverse.

Audio and video equipment technicians

27-4011

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share increases as the need to install, maintain, and repair new equipment, such as video conferencing, grows throughout all industries.

Camera operators, television, video, and motion picture

27-4031

Television broadcasting

515120

Demand change - share increases as more video content (including nonfiction) requires camera operators before it is distributed.

Camera operators, television, video, and motion picture

27-4031

Cable and other subscription programming

515200

Demand change - share increases as more video content (including nonfiction) requires camera operators before it is distributed.

Film and video editors

27-4032

Television broadcasting

515120

Demand change - share increases as more video content (including nonfiction) requires camera operators before it is distributed.

Film and video editors

27-4032

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share increases as more video content (including nonfiction and advertising) requires editing before it is distributed.

Dietitians and nutritionists

29-1031

Grocery and specialty food stores

4450A1

Demand change - share increases as more grocery stores hire dietitians to attract customers and to differentiate their stores from competitors. Dietitians will be increasingly needed in grocery stores to help consumers select healthy food choices for purchase.

Pharmacists

29-1051

Grocery and specialty food stores

4450A1

Occupational substitution - share decreases as pharmacy technicians expand their role, taking on some of the work of pharmacists. Changes in pharmacist-to-technician ratios in various states may also contribute to a decline in share.

Pharmacists

29-1051

Pharmacies and drug stores

446110

Occupational substitution - share decreases as pharmacy technicians expand their role, taking on some of the work of pharmacists. Changes in pharmacist-to-technician ratios in various states may also contribute to a decline in share.

Anesthesiologists

29-1061

Total employment

TE1000

Occupational substitution, demand change - share decreases as improvements to surgical, non-surgical, and post-operative care and techniques improve and become more procedural, allowing for providing institutions to utilize nurse anesthetists at greater rates.

Internists, general

29-1063

Offices of physicians

621100

Occupational substitution, sourcing change - share decreases as care teams (including nurses, physicians assistants, and other care professionals) are expected to become larger and more diverse. Internists are also expected to increasingly work for hospitals.

Obstetricians and gynecologists

29-1064

Offices of physicians

621100

Occupational substitution - share decreases as care teams (including nurses, physicians assistants, and other care professionals) are expected to become larger and more diverse.

Pediatricians, general

29-1065

Offices of physicians

621100

Demand change, occupational substitution - share decreases as the portion of the national population under 18 continues to fall, and team-based care models grow.

Psychiatrists

29-1066

Offices of physicians

621100

Demand change - share increases as society attempts to rebuild the nation's mental health care capacity which has diminished over the past few decades.

Psychiatrists

29-1066

Offices of mental health practitioners (except physicians)

621330

Demand change - share increases as social pressures mount for improved mental health care capacity.

Surgeons

29-1067

Offices of physicians

621100

Sourcing change - share decreases as surgeons increasingly become employed by hospitals and larger financial entities which are more efficient at dealing with risk.

Physician assistants

29-1071

Offices of physicians

621100

Occupational substitution — share increases as growing demand for healthcare services will not be able to be met by expected growth in physicians and surgeons. This will encourage the adoption of team-based healthcare provision models which increasingly utilize PAs and NPs.

Physician assistants

29-1071

General medical and surgical hospitals; state

622102

Occupational substitution - share increases as growing demand for healthcare services will not be able to be met by expected growth in physicians and surgeons. This will encourage the adoption of team-based healthcare provision models which increasingly utilize PAs and NPs. Also, advances in technologies will slow the growth of other administrative and support occupations relative to all professional healthcare providers.

Physician assistants

29-1071

General medical and surgical hospitals; local

622103

Occupational substitution - share increases as growing demand for healthcare services will not be able to be met by expected growth in physicians and surgeons. This will encourage the adoption of team-based healthcare provision models which increasingly utilize PAs and NPs. Also, advances in technologies will slow the growth of other administrative and support occupations relative to all professional healthcare providers.

Physician assistants

29-1071

General medical and surgical hospitals; private

622105

Occupational substitution - share increases as growing demand for healthcare services will not be able to be met by expected growth in physicians and surgeons. This will encourage the adoption of team-based healthcare provision models which increasingly utilize PAs and NPs. Also, advances in technologies will slow the growth of other administrative and support occupations relative to all professional healthcare providers.

Podiatrists

29-1081

Offices of all other health practitioners

621390

Occupational substitution - share decreases as team-care models grow in popularity.

Recreational therapists

29-1125

General medical and surgical hospitals; state

622102

Occupational substitution - share decreases as general medical hospitals employ other therapy providers in place of recreational therapists.

Recreational therapists

29-1125

General medical and surgical hospitals; local

622103

Occupational substitution - share decreases as general medical hospitals employ other therapy providers in place of recreational therapists.

Recreational therapists

29-1125

General medical and surgical hospitals; private

622105

Occupational substitution - share decreases as general medical hospitals employ other therapy providers in place of recreational therapists.

Respiratory therapists

29-1126

Offices of physicians

621100

Occupational substitution — share increases as healthcare providers increasingly adopt team-based provision models and delegate therapeutic duties and care tasks from physicians to specialized therapists and care givers.

Respiratory therapists

29-1126

General medical and surgical hospitals; state

622102

Occupational substitution - share increases as healthcare providers increasingly adopt team-based provision models, and delegate therapeutic duties and care tasks from physicians to specialized therapists and care givers.

Respiratory therapists

29-1126

General medical and surgical hospitals; local

622103

Occupational substitution - share increases as healthcare providers increasingly adopt team-based provision models, and delegate therapeutic duties and care tasks from physicians to specialized therapists and care givers.

Respiratory therapists

29-1126

General medical and surgical hospitals; private

622105

Occupational substitution - share increases as healthcare providers increasingly adopt team-based provision models, and delegate therapeutic duties and care tasks from physicians to specialized therapists and care givers.

Respiratory therapists

29-1126

Specialty (except psychiatric and substance abuse) hospitals; private

622305

Occupational substitution - share increases as healthcare providers increasingly adopt team-based provision models, and delegate therapeutic duties and care tasks from physicians to specialized therapists and care givers.

Respiratory therapists

29-1126

Nursing care facilities (skilled nursing facilities)

623100

Occupational substitution - share increases as healthcare providers increasingly adopt team-based provision models, and delegate therapeutic duties and care tasks from physicians to specialized therapists and care givers.

Speech-language pathologists

29-1127

Offices of physical, occupational and speech therapists, and audiologists

621340

Demand change - share increases due to demand stemming from the aging of the population, autism-spectrum and special needs, school service rates, and growth in student enrollment.

Speech-language pathologists

29-1127

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share increases due to demand stemming from the aging of the population, autism-spectrum and special needs, school service rates, and growth in student enrollment.

Registered nurses

29-1141

General medical and surgical hospitals; state

622102

Occupational substitution - share increases as hospitals increasingly prefer to hire registered nurses, who have more education than LPNs/LVNs, to care for patients.

Registered nurses

29-1141

General medical and surgical hospitals; local

622103

Occupational substitution - share increases as hospitals increasingly prefer to hire registered nurses, who have more education than LPNs/LVNs, to care for patients.

Registered nurses

29-1141

General medical and surgical hospitals; private

622105

Occupational substitution - share increases as hospitals increasingly prefer to hire registered nurses, who have more education than LPNs/LVNs, to care for patients.

Registered nurses

29-1141

Psychiatric and substance abuse hospitals; private

622205

Occupational substitution - share increases as hospitals increasingly prefer to hire registered nurses, who have more education than LPNs/LVNs, to care for patients.

Nurse anesthetists

29-1151

Total employment

TE1000

Occupational substitution - share increases as advances in the practice of anesthesiology are effectively increasing the portion of routine cases vs complicated cases which require anesthesiologists.

Nurse practitioners

29-1171

Offices of physicians

621100

Occupational substitution — share increases as growing demand for healthcare services will not be able to be met by expected growth in physicians and surgeons. This will encourage the adoption of team-based healthcare provision models which increasingly utilize PAs and NPs.

Nurse practitioners

29-1171

General medical and surgical hospitals; state

622102

Occupational substitution — share increases as growing demand for healthcare services will not be able to be met by expected growth in physicians and surgeons. This will encourage the adoption of team based healthcare provision models which increasingly utilize PAs and NPs.

Nurse practitioners

29-1171

General medical and surgical hospitals; local

622103

Occupational substitution — share increases as growing demand for healthcare services will not be able to be met by expected growth in physicians and surgeons. This will encourage the adoption of team based healthcare provision models which increasingly utilize PAs and NPs.

Nurse practitioners

29-1171

General medical and surgical hospitals; private

622105

Occupational substitution — share increases as growing demand for healthcare services will not be able to be met by expected growth in physicians and surgeons. This will encourage the adoption of team based healthcare provision models which increasingly utilize PAs and NPs.

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

29-2010

Offices of physicians

621100

Sourcing change - share decreases as physicians’ offices send more lab work to medical and diagnostic laboratories instead of doing it in-house.

Diagnostic medical sonographers

29-2032

Offices of physicians

621100

Demand change - share increases as sonographers are used to save on costs for non-invasive imaging. Ultrasound imaging will increasingly be used to initially screen patients to determine the extent or type of treatment needed.

Diagnostic medical sonographers

29-2032

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

621500

Demand change - share increases as sonographers are used to save on costs for non-invasive imaging. Ultrasound imaging will increasingly be used to initially screen patients to determine the extent or type of treatment needed.

Diagnostic medical sonographers

29-2032

General medical and surgical hospitals; state

622102

Demand change - share increases as sonographers are used to save on costs for non-invasive imaging. Ultrasound imaging will increasingly be used to initially screen patients to determine the extent or type of treatment needed.

Diagnostic medical sonographers

29-2032

General medical and surgical hospitals; local

622103

Demand change - share increases as sonographers are used to save on costs for non-invasive imaging. Ultrasound imaging will increasingly be used to initially screen patients to determine the extent or type of treatment needed.

Diagnostic medical sonographers

29-2032

General medical and surgical hospitals; private

622105

Demand change - share increases as sonographers are used to save on costs for non-invasive imaging. Ultrasound imaging will increasingly be used to initially screen patients to determine the extent or type of treatment needed.

Pharmacy technicians

29-2052

Grocery and specialty food stores

4450A1

Occupational substitution - share increases as technicians expand their role, taking on some of the work of pharmacists and pharmacy aides. Favorable changes in pharmacists-to-technician ratios in some states may also contribute to a larger share.

Pharmacy technicians

29-2052

Pharmacies and drug stores

446110

Occupational substitution - share increases as technicians expand their role, taking on some of the work of pharmacists and pharmacy aides. Favorable changes in pharmacists-to-technician ratios in some states may also contribute to a larger share.

Respiratory therapy technicians

29-2054

Total employment

TE1000

Occupational substitution - share decreases as these workers are no longer credentialed separately from respiratory therapists.

Ophthalmic medical technicians

29-2057

Offices of optometrists

621320

Occupational substitution - share increases as offices of optometrists increasingly employ ophthalmic medical technicians who can perform a variety of patient care tasks, allowing optometrists to examine more patients and do other more complex tasks.

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

29-2061

General medical and surgical hospitals; state

622102

Occupational substitution - share decreases as hospitals increasingly prefer to hire registered nurses, who have more education than LPNs/LVNs, to care for patients.

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

29-2061

General medical and surgical hospitals; local

622103

Occupational substitution - share decreases as hospitals increasingly prefer to hire registered nurses, who have more education than LPNs/LVNs, to care for patients.

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

29-2061

General medical and surgical hospitals; private

622105

Occupational substitution - share decreases as hospitals increasingly prefer to hire registered nurses, who have more education than LPNs/LVNs, to care for patients.

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

29-2061

Psychiatric and substance abuse hospitals; private

622205

Occupational substitution - share decreases as hospitals increasingly prefer to hire registered nurses, who have more education than LPNs/LVNs, to care for patients.

Opticians, dispensing

29-2081

Offices of physicians

621100

Demand change - share decreases as growth in demand for eye care is expected to be outpaced by growth in demand for other types of healthcare.

Orthotists and prosthetists

29-2091

Medical equipment and supplies manufacturing

339100

Demand change - share increases as the main causes of limb loss, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease, increase as people age. The aging population will continue to need orthotists and prosthetists to create and fit medical devices such as braces and prosthetics.

Athletic trainers

29-9091

Elementary and secondary schools; local

611103

Demand change — share increases as schools hire more athletic trainers in order to provide preventative solutions to injuries, including traumatic head injuries, as well as first responder care.

Athletic trainers

29-9091

Colleges, universities, and professional schools; state

611302

Demand change — share increases as schools hire more athletic trainers in order to provide preventative solutions to injuries, including traumatic head injuries, as well as first responder care.

Athletic trainers

29-9091

Colleges, universities, and professional schools; private

611305

Demand change — share increases as schools hire more athletic trainers in order to provide preventative solutions to injuries, including traumatic head injuries, as well as first responder care.

Genetic counselors

29-9092

General medical and surgical hospitals; private

622105

Demand change - share increases as the number and quality of genetic tests is increasing while costs are decreasing.

Genetic counselors

29-9092

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share increases as the number and quality of genetic tests is increasing while costs are decreasing.

Occupational therapy assistants

31-2011

Offices of physical, occupational and speech therapists, and audiologists

621340

Demand change - share increases as adjustments continue to be made in business and payment models which attempt to increase the supply of OT services to meet excess demand.

Occupational therapy assistants

31-2011

Home healthcare services

621600

Demand change - share increases as home health care facilities increasingly attempt to leverage their occupational therapy workforce.

Occupational therapy assistants

31-2011

Nursing care facilities (skilled nursing facilities)

623100

Demand change - share increases as nursing care facilities increasingly attempt to leverage their occupational therapy workforce.

Physical therapist assistants

31-2021

Offices of physical, occupational and speech therapists, and audiologists

621340

Demand change - share increases as physical therapists increasingly attempt to leverage their own labor and continue to react to rule changes and business trends.

Physical therapist assistants

31-2021

Home healthcare services

621600

Demand change - share increases as home health care facilities increasingly attempt to leverage their physical therapy workforce.

Physical therapist assistants

31-2021

Nursing care facilities (skilled nursing facilities)

623100

Demand change - share increases as nursing care facilities increasingly attempt to leverage their physical therapy workforce.

Massage therapists

31-9011

Offices of chiropractors

621310

Demand change - share increases as offices of chiropractors continue to hire massage therapists to offer therapy services.

Massage therapists

31-9011

Offices of all other health practitioners

621390

Demand change - share increases as massage gains acceptance as a form of pain relief and as a tool to help maintain overall wellness.

Massage therapists

31-9011

Personal care services

812100

Demand change - share increases as massage gains acceptance as a form of pain relief, a tool to help maintain overall wellness, and as prices fall.

Medical assistants

31-9092

Offices of physicians

621100

Occupational substitution - share increases as healthcare providers increasingly adopt team-based provision models, and delegate administrative duties and other basic tasks from physicians to assistants.

Medical assistants

31-9092

General medical and surgical hospitals; state

622102

Occupational substitution - share increases as healthcare providers increasingly adopt team-based provision models, and delegate administrative duties and other basic tasks from physicians to assistants.

Medical assistants

31-9092

General medical and surgical hospitals; local

622103

Occupational substitution - share increases as healthcare providers increasingly adopt team-based provision models, and delegate administrative duties and other basic tasks from physicians to assistants.

Medical assistants

31-9092

General medical and surgical hospitals; private

622105

Occupational substitution - share increases as healthcare providers increasingly adopt team-based provision models, and delegate administrative duties and other basic tasks from physicians to assistants.

Medical assistants

31-9092

Nursing care facilities (skilled nursing facilities)

623100

Occupational substitution - share increases as healthcare providers increasingly adopt team-based provision models, and delegate administrative duties and other basic tasks from physicians to assistants.

Medical assistants

31-9092

Continuing care retirement communities and assisted living facilities for the elderly

623300

Occupational substitution - share increases as healthcare providers increasingly adopt team-based provision models, and delegate administrative duties and other basic tasks from physicians to assistants.

Medical transcriptionists

31-9094

Offices of physicians

621100

Sourcing change - share decreases as transcription services are moved out of traditional healthcare settings to third-party providers, including offshoring.

Medical transcriptionists

31-9094

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

621500

Sourcing change - share decreases as transcription services are moved out of traditional healthcare settings to third-party providers, including offshoring.

Medical transcriptionists

31-9094

General medical and surgical hospitals; state

622102

Sourcing change - share decreases as transcription services are moved out of traditional healthcare settings to third-party providers, including offshoring.

Medical transcriptionists

31-9094

General medical and surgical hospitals; local

622103

Sourcing change - share decreases as transcription services are moved out of traditional healthcare settings to third-party providers, including offshoring.

Medical transcriptionists

31-9094

General medical and surgical hospitals; private

622105

Sourcing change - share decreases as transcription services are moved out of traditional healthcare settings to third-party providers, including offshoring.

Pharmacy aides

31-9095

Pharmacies and drug stores

446110

Occupational substitution - share decreases as pharmacy technicians, cashiers, and clerks take over duties traditionally done by aides to reduce costs.

Phlebotomists

31-9097

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

621500

Demand change - share increases as more patients undergo lab tests as part of their overall medical treatment.

Phlebotomists

31-9097

All other ambulatory healthcare services

621990

Demand change - share increases as blood donations and storage capacity increase.

Phlebotomists

31-9097

General medical and surgical hospitals; local

622103

Demand change - share increases as more patients get more bloods tests from phlebotomists as part of their overall medical treatment.

Phlebotomists

31-9097

General medical and surgical hospitals; private

622105

Demand change - share increases as more patients get more bloods tests from phlebotomists as part of their overall medical treatment.

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

33-1011

Facilities support services

561200

Demand change - share decreases as states reduce their reliance on private prisons.

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

33-1011

State government, excluding education and hospitals

999200

Demand change - share decreases as states seek to reduce prison populations.

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

33-1011

Local government, excluding education and hospitals

999300

Demand change - share decreases as local governments enact policies to reduce jail populations.

First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other

33-1099

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share decreases as fewer security guards require proportionately fewer first-line supervisors.

Forest fire inspectors and prevention specialists

33-2022

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share increases as increasingly destructive wild land fires will increase the demand for fire prevention.

Bailiffs

33-3011

State government, excluding education and hospitals

999200

Demand change - share decreases as caseloads continue to decline and courts consolidate.

Bailiffs

33-3011

Local government, excluding education and hospitals

999300

Demand change - share decreases as caseloads continue to decline and courts consolidate.

Bailiffs

33-3011

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share decreases as caseloads continue to decline and courts consolidate.

Correctional officers and jailers

33-3012

Facilities support services

561200

Demand change - share decreases as states reduce their reliance on private prisons.

Correctional officers and jailers

33-3012

State government, excluding education and hospitals

999200

Demand change - share decreases as states seek to reduce prison populations.

Correctional officers and jailers

33-3012

Local government, excluding education and hospitals

999300

Demand change - share decreases as local governments enact policies to reduce prison populations.

Parking enforcement workers

33-3041

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as cities continue to adopt automated license plate readers.

Security guards

33-9032

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as improvements in remote sensing and autonomous robots allow security guards to patrol larger areas.

Chefs and head cooks

35-1011

Grocery and specialty food stores

4450A1

Demand change - share increases as the demand for food away from home continues to increase and grocery stores add more prepared food options.

Chefs and head cooks

35-1011

Continuing care retirement communities and assisted living facilities for the elderly

623300

Demand change - share increases as more senior living facilities hire chefs and head cooks to improve food options at their facilities.

Chefs and head cooks

35-1011

Special food services

722300

Demand change - share increases as preference grows for healthier food in school cafeterias, hospitals, government, and food trucks, requiring more chefs and head cooks to oversee food preparation.

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

35-1012

Elementary and secondary schools; local

611103

Sourcing change - share decreases as schools continue to outsource food preparation services.

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

35-1012

Nursing care facilities (skilled nursing facilities)

623100

Sourcing change - share decreases as schools continue to outsource food preparation services.

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

35-1012

Continuing care retirement communities and assisted living facilities for the elderly

623300

Sourcing change - share decreases as schools continue to outsource food preparation services.

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

35-1012

Special food services

722300

Productivity change - share decreases as the centralized preparation of meals allows each first-line supervisor to manage more food preparation workers.

Cooks, fast food

35-2011

Full-service restaurants

722511

Occupational substitution - share decreases as restaurants hire food preparation and serving workers instead of fast food cooks.

Cooks, institution and cafeteria

35-2012

Elementary and secondary schools; local

611103

Sourcing change, demand change - share decreases as schools continue to outsource food services to food contracting companies. The decrease is limited by increasing demand for healthy high quality food options.

Cooks, institution and cafeteria

35-2012

Elementary and secondary schools; private

611105

Sourcing change, demand change - share decreases as the use of food contractors continues to grow. The demand for healthy, high-quality food options will increase demand for institution and cafeteria cooks.

Cooks, institution and cafeteria

35-2012

Special food services

722300

Sourcing change - share increases as schools and institutions use more food contractors rather than in-house cooks.

Cooks, institution and cafeteria

35-2012

State government, excluding education and hospitals

999200

Sourcing change - share decreases as more food contractors are used.

Cooks, institution and cafeteria

35-2012

Local government, excluding education and hospitals

999300

Sourcing change - share decreases as more food contractors are used.

Cooks, restaurant

35-2014

Fitness and recreational sports centers

713940

Demand change - share decreases as fitness consumers choose to get their food from sources outside of the gym café.

Cooks, restaurant

35-2014

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share increases as consumers demand more high-quality healthy food options.

Cooks, short order

35-2015

Motion picture and video exhibition

512130

Demand change - share increases as movie theaters increasingly expand concessions offerings and services to include meals, beverages, and full restaurant services.

Cooks, short order

35-2015

Full-service restaurants

722511

Demand change - share decreases as restaurants continue to prefer restaurant cooks over short order cooks due to a greater skill set.

Food preparation workers

35-2021

Grocery and specialty food stores

4450A1

Demand change - share increases as grocery stores include more in-store prepared food. The change is moderated by work being performed by combined food preparation and serving workers.

Food preparation workers

35-2021

Gasoline stations

447000

Demand change - share increases as prepared food offerings increase in popularity. This demand will be moderated by competition with combined food preparation and serving workers.

Food preparation workers

35-2021

Elementary and secondary schools; local

611103

Sourcing change - share decreases as schools continue to outsource food preparation.

Food preparation workers

35-2021

General medical and surgical hospitals; private

622105

Sourcing change - share decreases as more hospitals outsource food service.

Food preparation workers

35-2021

Nursing care facilities (skilled nursing facilities)

623100

Sourcing change - share decreases as food service is outsourced. Some of the loss is moderated as some facilities return service to the site to provide locally sourced fresh foods.

Food preparation workers

35-2021

Continuing care retirement communities and assisted living facilities for the elderly

623300

Sourcing change - share decreases as food service is outsourced. Some of the loss is moderated as some facilities return service to the site to provide locally sourced fresh foods.

Food preparation workers

35-2021

Special food services

722300

Sourcing change - share increases as more schools and hospitals outsource food service. This is an ongoing activity, which may be slowing.

Bartenders

35-3011

Motion picture and video exhibition

512130

Demand change - share increases as movie theaters increasingly offer more diverse concessions, including alcoholic beverages and traditional restaurant experiences.

Bartenders

35-3011

Casino hotels

721120

Productivity change - share decreases as establishments adopt automatic measuring and mixing beverage systems.

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

35-3021

Gasoline stations

447000

Occupational substitution - share increases as expanding food options in gas stations will increase the need for workers who can make and serve food as well as perform other duties.

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

35-3021

Special food services

722300

Demand change - share increases as multipurpose workers are needed to operate these services including food trucks.

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

35-3022

Grocery and specialty food stores

4450A1

Demand change - share increases as more stores add prepared food offerings.

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

35-3022

Elementary and secondary schools; local

611103

Sourcing change - share decreases as schools continue to outsource food service activities and centralize operations.

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

35-3022

Special food services

722300

Sourcing change - share increases as schools continue to outsource food service activities and centralize operations.

Waiters and waitresses

35-3031

Motion picture and video exhibition

512130

Demand change - share increases as movie theaters increasingly add partial or full restaurant services to existing traditional concessions to encourage attendance.

Waiters and waitresses

35-3031

Full-service restaurants

722511

Productivity change - share decreases as adoption of technologies enables more self-service, including online ordering and payments, and will allow waiters and waitresses to serve more customers.

Food servers, nonrestaurant

35-3041

Motion picture and video exhibition

512130

Demand change - share increases as theaters are increasingly offering partial or full restaurant menus and services to moviegoers in addition to traditional concessions.

Dishwashers

35-9021

Motion picture and video exhibition

512130

Demand change - share increases as movie theaters are increasingly offering partial or full restaurant menus to moviegoers to encourage attendance. Dishwashers will be needed as offerings require more involved preparation and larger kitchens.

Dishwashers

35-9021

Full-service restaurants

722511

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as increasing delivery and carryout options reduces the number of dishes needed to be washed in-house.

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

37-2012

Rooming and boarding houses, dormitories, and workers' camps

721300

Demand change - share increases as young residents outsourcing daily chores (such as cleaning) becomes more common in shared living spaces.

Motion picture projectionists

39-3021

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as digital film projectors require less routine monitoring than traditional film projectors.

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

39-3031

Promoters of performing arts, sports, and similar events

711300

Productivity change - share decreases as productivity improves through the adoption of more efficient ticketing and RFID-based gate pass systems.

Embalmers

39-4011

Death care services

812200

Demand change - share decreases as more cremations take place, and fewer embalming services are needed.

Personal care aides

39-9021

Home healthcare services

621600

Demand change - share increases as cost pressures drive growth in these inexpensive direct care givers.

Personal care aides

39-9021

Nursing care facilities (skilled nursing facilities)

623100

Demand change - share increases as cost pressures drive growth in these inexpensive direct care givers.

Personal care aides

39-9021

Continuing care retirement communities and assisted living facilities for the elderly

623300

Demand change - share increases as cost pressures drive growth in these inexpensive direct care givers.

Personal care aides

39-9021

Services for the elderly and persons with disabilities

624120

Demand change - share increases as cost pressures drive growth in these inexpensive direct care givers.

Personal care aides

39-9021

Private households

814000

Demand change - share increases as cost pressures drive growth in these inexpensive direct care givers.

Cashiers

41-2011

Grocery and specialty food stores

4450A1

Demand change, capital/labor substitution - share decreases as online grocery orders for pickup or delivery increase and self-checkout systems become more common.

Cashiers

41-2011

Book stores and news dealers

451200

Occupational substitution - share decreases as the duties of a dedicated cashier are often performed by retail salespersons.

Cashiers

41-2011

General merchandise stores

452000

Demand change, capital/labor substitution - share decreases as online orders for pickup or delivery increase and self-checkout systems become more common.

Cashiers

41-2011

Casino hotels

721120

Occupational substitution - share decreases as casino hotels increasingly use mobile payment devices which allow customers to pay at their table.

Cashiers

41-2011

Full-service restaurants

722511

Productivity change - share decreases as an increasing adoption of online ordering and payment and self-checkout systems by full-service restaurants will require fewer cashiers for payment processing.

Cashiers

41-2011

Drycleaning and laundry services

812300

Demand change - share decreases as demand for dry cleaning at dry cleaning establishments falls and pick up and drop off laundry at other establishments increase.

Cashiers

41-2011

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change, capital/labor substitution - share decreases as online sales increase and self-checkout systems become more common.

Gaming change persons and booth cashiers

41-2012

Casino hotels

721120

Demand change - share decreases as casino hotels broaden their entertainment offerings. The share of gaming change persons and booth cashiers will decrease as less emphasis will be placed on traditional gambling and more emphasis on other activities.

Counter and rental clerks

41-2021

Drycleaning and laundry services

812300

Demand change - share decreases as demand for dry cleaning at dry cleaning establishments falls and pick up and drop off laundry at other establishments increase.

Retail salespersons

41-2031

Book stores and news dealers

451200

Occupational substitution - share increases as retail salespersons increasingly take on duties typical of a cashier.

Telemarketers

41-9041

Business support services

561400

Demand change - share decreases as the Do Not Call registry from the FCC continues to grow, and companies increasingly use alternative digital marketing methods.

Telemarketers

41-9041

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share decreases as the Do Not Call registry from the FCC continues to grow, and companies increasingly use alternative digital marketing methods.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Plumbing, heating, and air-conditioning contractors

238220

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Merchant wholesalers, durable goods (4232,3,5,6,7,9)

4230A1

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Professional and commercial equipment and supplies merchant wholesalers

423400

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Merchant wholesalers, nondurable goods (4244,8)

4240A1

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Wholesale electronic markets and agents and brokers

425000

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Automobile dealers

441100

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Building material and supplies dealers

444100

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Grocery and specialty food stores

4450A1

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Electronic shopping and mail-order houses

454100

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Scheduled air transportation

481100

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Freight transportation arrangement

488500

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Postal service

491000

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Warehousing and storage

493000

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Data processing, hosting, and related services

518000

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Credit intermediation and related activities (5221,3)

5220A1

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Other nondepository credit intermediation

522290

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Insurance agencies and brokerages

524210

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Other insurance related activities

524290

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Legal services

541100

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services

541200

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Engineering services

541330

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Computer systems design and related services

541500

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

541600

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Advertising, public relations, and related services

541800

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Veterinary services

541940

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Management of companies and enterprises

551000

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Office administrative services

561100

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Temporary help services

561320

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Other support services

561900

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Elementary and secondary schools; local

611103

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Colleges, universities, and professional schools; state

611302

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Colleges, universities, and professional schools; private

611305

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Offices of physicians

621100

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Offices of dentists

621200

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Offices of physical, occupational and speech therapists, and audiologists

621340

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Home healthcare services

621600

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

General medical and surgical hospitals; local

622103

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

General medical and surgical hospitals; private

622105

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Nursing care facilities (skilled nursing facilities)

623100

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Services for the elderly and persons with disabilities

624120

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

State government, excluding education and hospitals

999200

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Local government, excluding education and hospitals

999300

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

Switchboard operators, including answering service

43-2011

Total employment

TE1000

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as companies continue to use automated phone systems.

Telephone operators

43-2021

Total employment

TE1000

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as companies continue to adopt automated phone systems.

Bill and account collectors

43-3011

Credit intermediation and related activities (5221,3)

5220A1

Productivity change - share decreases as automated collections software allows the same amount of collections work to be done with fewer human collectors.

Bill and account collectors

43-3011

Other nondepository credit intermediation

522290

Productivity change - share decreases as automated collections software allows the same amount of collections work to be done with fewer human collectors.

Bill and account collectors

43-3011

Management of companies and enterprises

551000

Productivity change - share decreases as automated collections software allows the same amount of collections work to be done with fewer human collectors.

Bill and account collectors

43-3011

Business support services

561400

Productivity change - share decreases as automated collections software allows the same amount of collections work to be done with fewer human collectors.

Bill and account collectors

43-3011

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as automated collections software allows the same amount of collections work to be done with fewer human collectors.

Billing and posting clerks

43-3021

Direct health and medical insurance carriers

524114

Productivity change - share decreases as firms increase the use of computer software, enhanced with AI technology, automating billing activities, requiring fewer clerks.

Billing and posting clerks

43-3021

Direct insurance (except life, health, and medical) carriers

524120

Productivity change - share decreases as firms increase the use of computer software, enhanced with AI technology, automating billing activities, requiring fewer clerks.

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

43-3031

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as automated bookkeeping software will allow more bookkeeping work to be done by fewer employees.

Payroll and timekeeping clerks

43-3051

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as more payroll and timekeeping work is automated, reducing the need for these workers.

Procurement clerks

43-3061

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as procurement processes are increasingly automated, reducing the need for these workers.

Tellers

43-3071

Credit intermediation and related activities (5221,3)

5220A1

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as various types of technology, including online and mobile applications, enhanced ATMs, and video teller kiosks, will perform tasks currently performed by tellers.

Correspondence clerks

43-4021

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as increasingly capable automated document generators increase the productivity of the workers.

Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks

43-4041

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as the availability of online credit reports allows this work to be done more efficiently, reducing the need for these workers.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Apparel, piece goods, and notions merchant wholesalers

424300

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Direct health and medical insurance carriers

524114

Productivity change - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Direct insurance (except life, health, and medical) carriers

524120

Productivity change - share decreases as advances in speech, language, data, and images processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Total employment

TE1000

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

File clerks

43-4071

Total employment

TE1000

Substitution change - share decreases as continued adoption of digital records permits other occupations to file/retrieve records on their own.

Interviewers, except eligibility and loan

43-4111

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change, substitution change - share decreases as digital data collection allows interviewers to focus on more complex and nuanced tasks. In some cases, workers such as general office clerks are likely to take on duties of interviewers when a dedicated interviewer can no longer be justified.

Library assistants, clerical

43-4121

Other information services

519000

Demand change - share decreases as library usage declines, resulting in less of a need for library assistants.

Library assistants, clerical

43-4121

Elementary and secondary schools; local

611103

Demand change - share decreases as library usage declines, resulting in less of a need for library assistants.

Library assistants, clerical

43-4121

Junior colleges; state

611202

Demand change - share decreases as library usage declines, resulting in less of a need for library assistants.

Library assistants, clerical

43-4121

Junior colleges; local

611203

Demand change - share decreases as library usage declines, resulting in less of a need for library assistants.

Library assistants, clerical

43-4121

Colleges, universities, and professional schools; state

611302

Demand change - share decreases as library usage declines, resulting in less of a need for library assistants.

Library assistants, clerical

43-4121

Colleges, universities, and professional schools; private

611305

Demand change - share decreases as library usage declines, resulting in less of a need for library assistants.

Library assistants, clerical

43-4121

Local government, excluding education and hospitals

999300

Demand change - share decreases as library usage declines, resulting in less of a need for library assistants.

New accounts clerks

43-4141

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as bank customers increasingly use online and mobile tools to open bank accounts, reducing the need for these workers.

Order clerks

43-4151

Apparel, piece goods, and notions merchant wholesalers

424300

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as establishments continue to adopt automated order taking systems.

Order clerks

43-4151

Total employment

TE1000

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as establishments continue to adopt automated order taking systems.

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

43-4161

Total employment

TE1000

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as improved recordkeeping systems allow human resources specialists to maintain records with less assistance from human resource assistants.

Receptionists and information clerks

43-4171

Direct insurance (except life, health, and medical) carriers

524120

Productivity change - share decreases as companies use computer software, enhanced with AI technology, to automate routine office tasks such as information and document preparations.

Receptionists and information clerks

43-4171

Office administrative services

561100

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as technology such as automated phone trees will continue to be used.

Receptionists and information clerks

43-4171

Total employment

TE1000

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as technology such as automated phone trees will continue to be used.

Couriers and messengers

43-5021

Couriers and express delivery services

492100

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as innovations such as e-delivery (and e-signatures) help get important and time-sensitive documents signed and delivered online, eliminating the expenses of printing and shipping signed documents for same day or overnight delivery.

Couriers and messengers

43-5021

Local messengers and local delivery

492200

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as innovations such as e-delivery (and e-signatures) help get important and time-sensitive documents signed and delivered online, eliminating the expenses of printing and shipping signed documents for same day or overnight delivery.

Couriers and messengers

43-5021

Credit intermediation and related activities (5221,3)

5220A1

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as innovations such as e-delivery (and e-signatures) help get important and time-sensitive documents signed and delivered online, eliminating the expenses of printing and shipping signed documents for same day or overnight delivery.

Couriers and messengers

43-5021

Legal services

541100

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases due to a growing acceptance and reliance on legally binding electronic signatures as well as more states adopting electronic document submission.

Dispatchers, except police, fire, and ambulance

43-5032

Taxi and limousine service

485300

Productivity change - share decreases as streamlined and automated dispatch systems process relatively simple transactions with less input from dispatchers.

Dispatchers, except police, fire, and ambulance

43-5032

Security systems services

561620

Productivity change - share decreases as streamlined and automated dispatch systems process relatively simple transactions with less input from dispatchers.

Dispatchers, except police, fire, and ambulance

43-5032

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as streamlined and automated dispatch systems process relatively simple transactions with less input from dispatchers.

Meter readers, utilities

43-5041

Total employment

TE1000

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as alternative remote meter reading technologies (e.g., AMR, AMI, and other smart systems) increasingly replace meter readers, allowing meter readers to be more productive and efficient. Innovative technologies allows government and companies to remotely read meters more frequently.

Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators

43-5053

Postal service

491000

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as continued gains are realized from improved sorting and tracking equipment and processes.

Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks

43-5071

Animal food manufacturing

311100

Productivity change - share decreases as automated filling, bagging, packing, and palletizing equipment is used to track products.

Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks

43-5071

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as technologies such as sensors, bar codes, and RFID (radio-frequency identification) are increasingly used in shipping and receiving activities.

Stock clerks and order fillers

43-5081

Merchant wholesalers, nondurable goods (4244,8)

4240A1

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as large firms use automated storage-and-retrieval equipment based on sensors, bar codes, Radio-frequency identification, and transmission of data through local Wi-Fi to central headquarters.

Stock clerks and order fillers

43-5081

Warehousing and storage

493000

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as large firms use automated storage-and-retrieval equipment based on sensors, bar codes, Radio-frequency identification, and transmission of data through local Wi-Fi to central headquarters.

Executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants

43-6011

Direct health and medical insurance carriers

524114

Productivity change - share decreases as firms increase the use of computer software, enhanced with AI technology, to automate routine back office functions, such as documents preparation.

Executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants

43-6011

Direct insurance (except life, health, and medical) carriers

524120

Productivity change - share decreases as companies use computer software, enhanced with AI technology, to automate routine clerical and office tasks.

Executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants

43-6011

Office administrative services

561100

Occupational substitution - share decreases as improved technology allows workers to perform with fewer secretaries.

Executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants

43-6011

Total employment

TE1000

Occupational substitution - share decreases as improved technology allows workers to perform with fewer secretaries.

Legal secretaries

43-6012

Total employment

TE1000

Occupational substitution - share decreases as improved technology allows lawyers and paralegals to perform with fewer secretaries.

Medical secretaries

43-6013

Veterinary services

541940

Productivity change - share decreases as improved technology allows workers to perform with fewer secretaries.

Medical secretaries

43-6013

Total employment

TE1000

Occupational substitution - share increases as medical establishments continue to require secretaries with knowledge of medical terminology and procedures in lieu of other administrative personnel.

Secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive

43-6014

Direct health and medical insurance carriers

524114

Productivity change - share decreases as firms increase the use of computer software, enhanced with AI technology, to automate some office clerical functions, such as documents preparation.

Secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive

43-6014

Direct insurance (except life, health, and medical) carriers

524120

Productivity change - share decreases as companies use computer software, enhanced with AI technology, to automate routine office tasks.

Secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive

43-6014

Office administrative services

561100

Occupational substitution - share decreases as improved technology allows work to be performed with fewer secretaries.

Secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive

43-6014

Total employment

TE1000

Occupational substitution - share decreases as improved technology allows work to be performed with fewer secretaries.

Computer operators

43-9011

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as the tasks of computer operators are increasingly automated allowing fewer operators to monitor more systems.

Data entry keyers

43-9021

Direct health and medical insurance carriers

524114

Productivity change - share decreases as firms increase the use of computer software, enhanced with AI technology, to automate data entry, requiring fewer data entry workers.

Data entry keyers

43-9021

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change, capital/labor substitution - share decreases as direct data entry in mobile devices and handwriting recognition software become more common, replacing data entry keyers.

Word processors and typists

43-9022

Total employment

TE1000

Occupational substitution -share decreases as other workers assume typing functions due to the ubiquity of typing skills.

Desktop publishers

43-9031

Printing and related support activities

323000

Demand change - share decreases as an increased focus on digital publishing, a format that includes dynamic design elements like animation, will lead to less demand for desktop publishers to design printed materials. In addition, publishing software improvements make it easier for other workers, such as editors and graphic designers, to perform the duties of desktop publishers.

Desktop publishers

43-9031

Newspaper publishers

511110

Demand change - share decreases as an increased focus on digital publishing, a format that includes dynamic design elements like animation, will lead to less demand for desktop publishers to design printed materials. In addition, publishing software improvements make it easier for other workers, such as editors and graphic designers, to perform the duties of desktop publishers.

Desktop publishers

43-9031

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share decreases as an increased focus on digital publishing, a format that includes dynamic design elements like animation, will lead to less demand for desktop publishers to design printed materials. In addition, publishing software improvements make it easier for other workers, such as editors and graphic designers, to perform the duties of desktop publishers.

Insurance claims and policy processing clerks

43-9041

Direct health and medical insurance carriers

524114

Productivity change - share increases as firms increase the use of computer software, enhanced with AI technology, to automate claims and policy processing.

Insurance claims and policy processing clerks

43-9041

Direct insurance (except life, health, and medical) carriers

524120

Productivity change - share decreases as increasing adaptation of automated claim processing systems and platforms that are able to perform most routine tasks, along submitting and processing documents, enable customers to file claims on their own.

Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service

43-9051

Total employment

TE1000

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as companies use machines with programmable software that continues to supplant some office mailing tasks. Share will decrease as correspondence and communication is increasingly done online and organizations utilize administrative staff to handle incoming and outgoing mail.

Office clerks, general

43-9061

Apparel, piece goods, and notions merchant wholesalers

424300

Occupational substitution, capital/labor substitution - share decreases as use of technology such as electronic filing systems allow other workers to perform the duties done by general office clerks and makes all workers more productive.

Office clerks, general

43-9061

Direct health and medical insurance carriers

524114

Productivity change - share decreases as firms increase the use of computer software, enhanced with AI technology, to automate some clerical functions, such as typing and document preparation.

Office clerks, general

43-9061

Direct insurance (except life, health, and medical) carriers

524120

Productivity change - share decreases as companies use computer software, enhanced with AI technology, to automate routine office clerical tasks such as document preparation.

Office clerks, general

43-9061

Office administrative services

561100

Occupational substitution - share decreases as increased use of technology, such as electronic filing systems and file sharing software allows other workers in offices to perform the duties of general office clerks.

Office clerks, general

43-9061

Total employment

TE1000

Occupational substitution - share decreases as increased use of technology, such as electronic filing systems and file sharing software allows other workers in offices to perform the duties of general office clerks.

Office machine operators, except computer

43-9071

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share decreases as offices become paperless and continue to use technology such as electronic filing systems.

Graders and sorters, agricultural products

45-2041

Total employment

TE1000

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as enhanced technology will automatically sort and grade a growing number of agricultural products.

Agricultural equipment operators

45-2091

Crop production

111000

Occupational substitution - share increases as more sophisticated agricultural equipment is increasingly used for farming and related operations, resulting in a greater need for the workers who operate this equipment and less of a need for workers to do tasks by hand.

Agricultural equipment operators

45-2091

Animal production and aquaculture

112000

Occupational substitution - share increases as more sophisticated agricultural equipment is increasingly used for farming and related operations, resulting in a greater need for the workers who operate this equipment and less of a need for workers to do tasks by hand.

Agricultural equipment operators

45-2091

Support activities for agriculture and forestry

115000

Occupational substitution - share increases as more sophisticated agricultural equipment is increasingly used for farming and related operations, resulting in a greater need for the workers who operate this equipment and less of a need for workers to do tasks by hand.

Agricultural equipment operators

45-2091

Merchant wholesalers, nondurable goods (4241,7,9)

4240A3

Occupational substitution - share increases as more sophisticated agricultural equipment is increasingly used for farming and related operations, resulting in a greater need for the workers who operate this equipment and less of a need for workers to do tasks by hand.

Agricultural equipment operators

45-2091

Farm product raw material merchant wholesalers

424500

Occupational substitution - share increases as more sophisticated agricultural equipment is increasingly used for farming and related operations, resulting in a greater need for the workers who operate this equipment and less of a need for workers to do tasks by hand.

Farmworkers and laborers, crop, nursery, and greenhouse

45-2092

Total employment

TE1000

Occupational substitution, productivity change, and capital-labor substitution - share decreases as automation and use of productivity-enhancing technology are expected to lead to less demand for these workers. However, declines will be tempered by expected increases in organic food production, which is generally more labor-intensive, and by the fact that technology is unlikely to substitute for some tasks performed by farmworkers and laborers, such as berry picking.

Farmworkers, farm, ranch, and aquacultural animals

45-2093

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as productivity-enhancing technology is expected to lead to less demand for these workers. However, declines will be tempered by expected increases in organic, free-range or grass-fed food production, which is generally more labor-intensive.

Forest and conservation workers

45-4011

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as the automation of some manual labor tasks in forest and conservation work reduces the needed number of these workers.

Fallers

45-4021

Total employment

TE1000

Occupational substitution - share decreases as logging equipment operators will continue to take over some of the tasks performed by fallers due increased mechanization.

Logging equipment operators

45-4022

Total employment

TE1000

Occupational substitution - share increases as logging equipment operators will continue to take over some of the tasks performed by fallers and other logging workers who perform tasks by hand, given increased mechanization in the industry.

Boilermakers

47-2011

Nonresidential building construction

236200

Demand change - share decreases as coal plants are closed or converted to natural gas.

Boilermakers

47-2011

Plumbing, heating, and air-conditioning contractors

238220

Demand change - share decreases as coal plants are closed or converted to natural gas.

Carpenters

47-2031

Residential building construction

236100

Demand change - share decreases as the use of prefabricated materials replace onsite carpenter assembly.

Carpenters

47-2031

Nonresidential building construction

236200

Demand change - share decreases as the use of prefabricated materials replace onsite carpenter assembly.

Carpet installers

47-2041

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share decreases as other floor coverings replace carpet.

Floor layers, except carpet, wood, and hard tiles

47-2042

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share increases as more consumers choose resilient floor coverings.

Tile and marble setters

47-2044

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share increases as tile and natural stone continue to gain share in overall flooring market sales.

Electricians

47-2111

Residential building construction

236100

Demand change - share increases as demand for wind and solar installations will increase the need for electricians to connect the electrical generation sources to the electrical grid.

Electricians

47-2111

Nonresidential building construction

236200

Demand change - share increases as demand for wind and solar installations will increase the need for electricians to connect the electrical generation sources to the electrical grid.

Electricians

47-2111

Power and communication line and related structures construction

237130

Demand change - share increases as demand for wind and solar installations will increase the need for electricians to connect the electrical generation sources to the electrical grid.

Electricians

47-2111

Electrical contractors and other wiring installation contractors

238210

Demand change - share increases as demand for wind and solar installations will increase the need for electricians to connect the electrical generation sources to the electrical grid.

Electricians

47-2111

Plumbing, heating, and air-conditioning contractors

238220

Demand change - share increases as demand for wind and solar installations will increase the need for electricians to connect the electrical generation sources to the electrical grid.

Electricians

47-2111

Other specialty trade contractors

238900

Demand change - share increases as demand for wind and solar installations will increase the need for electricians to connect the electrical generation sources to the electrical grid.

Sheet metal workers

47-2211

Plumbing, heating, and air-conditioning contractors

238220

Sourcing change - share decreases as the use of prefabricated duct systems will reduce the need for sheet metal workers in residential construction sites.

Solar photovoltaic installers

47-2231

Solar electric power generation

221114

Demand change - share increases as there are a growing number of utility sized solar operations which will need some panel replacement as they age or suffer damage due to weather. PV Installers will be needed to replace the defective modules.

Solar photovoltaic installers

47-2231

Electrical contractors and other wiring installation contractors

238210

Demand change - share increases due to the large number of retail companies with green initiatives, as well as government-led initiatives to install solar panels.

Solar photovoltaic installers

47-2231

Plumbing, heating, and air-conditioning contractors

238220

Demand change - share increases due to the large number of retail companies with green initiatives, as well as government-led initiatives to install solar panels.

Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators

47-4061

Other heavy and civil engineering construction

237900

Demand change - share increases as more freight transportation along with increased investment in rail will lead to more rail repair.

Radio, cellular, and tower equipment installers and repairers

49-2021

Power and communication line and related structures construction

237130

Demand change - share increases as innovative deployment of 5G smart technology requires extensive upgrades to existing and new telecommunications infrastructure, such as installing small cells, and replacing or repairing towers, antennas or auxiliary equipment.

Radio, cellular, and tower equipment installers and repairers

49-2021

Electrical contractors and other wiring installation contractors

238210

Demand change - share increases as innovative deployment of 5G smart technology requires massive installations of fiber optic cable, small cells, and new routers in businesses and homes.

Radio, cellular, and tower equipment installers and repairers

49-2021

Telecommunications

517000

Demand change - share increases as innovative deployment of 5G smart technology requires extensive upgrades to existing and new telecommunications infrastructure, such as installing small cells, and replacing or repairing towers, antennas or auxiliary equipment.

Telecommunications equipment installers and repairers, except line installers

49-2022

Power and communication line and related structures construction

237130

Demand change - share increases as the deployment of 5G technology, fiber optic cables, and small cells requires massive installations and maintenance of various telecommunication equipment.

Telecommunications equipment installers and repairers, except line installers

49-2022

Telecommunications

517000

Demand change - share increases as the deployment of 5G smart technology requires massive installations of fiber optic cable, small cells, and new routers in businesses and homes.

Avionics technicians

49-2091

Scheduled air transportation

481100

Sourcing change - share decreases as some airline companies are outsourcing more of their repair and maintenance overseas.

Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment

49-2093

Local government, excluding education and hospitals

999300

Demand change - share increases as local governments expand rail service.

Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

49-2096

Merchant wholesalers, durable goods (4232,3,5,6,7,9)

4230A1

Demand change - share decreases as automotive electronics needs are increasingly met by smartphones and factory-installed options.

Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

49-2096

Automotive parts, accessories, and tire stores

441300

Demand change - share decreases as automotive electronics needs are increasingly met by smartphones and factory-installed options.

Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

49-2096

Electronics and appliance stores

443000

Demand change - share decreases as automotive electronics needs are increasingly met by smartphones and factory-installed options.

Aircraft mechanics and service technicians

49-3011

Scheduled air transportation

481100

Sourcing change - share decreases as some large airline companies are outsourcing more of their repair and maintenance overseas and domestically.

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

49-3023

Automobile dealers

441100

Demand change - share decreases as demand for vehicle maintenance and repair declines due to vehicles being built more reliably, and improvements in vehicle technology will lead to less required maintenance.

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

49-3023

Gasoline stations

447000

Demand change - share decreases as demand for vehicle maintenance and repair declines due to vehicles being built more reliably, and improvements in vehicle technology will lead to less required maintenance.

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

49-3023

Automotive mechanical and electrical repair and maintenance

811110

Demand change - share decreases as demand for vehicle maintenance and repair declines due to vehicles being built more reliably, and improvements in vehicle technology will lead to less required maintenance.

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

49-3023

Other automotive repair and maintenance

811190

Demand change - share decreases as demand for vehicle maintenance and repair declines due to vehicles being built more reliably, and improvements in vehicle technology will lead to less required maintenance.

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

49-3023

Local government, excluding education and hospitals

999300

Demand change - share decreases as demand for vehicle maintenance and repair declines due to vehicles being built more reliably, and improvements in vehicle technology will lead to less required maintenance.

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

49-3031

Motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts and supplies merchant wholesalers

423100

Demand change - share increases as buses, trucks, and other commercial vehicles move to electric engines and away from gas and diesel-powered engines. This occupation includes workers who repair both diesel and non-diesel engines, and they have the knowledge to provide assistance and services to wholesale customers.

Farm equipment mechanics and service technicians

49-3041

Crop production

111000

Demand change - share increases as demand for farm equipment repair increases with more agricultural mechanization, requiring a greater share of farm equipment mechanics.

Rail car repairers

49-3043

Local government, excluding education and hospitals

999300

Demand change - share increases as demand for rail travel increases based on rail ridership outpacing population growth.

Tire repairers and changers

49-3093

Gasoline stations

447000

Demand change - share decreases as gasoline stations continue to reduce their automotive service offerings.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Animal food manufacturing

311100

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Sugar and confectionery product manufacturing

311300

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty food manufacturing

311400

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Dairy product manufacturing

311500

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Animal slaughtering and processing

311600

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing

311800

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Other food manufacturing

311900

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Beverage manufacturing

312100

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Tobacco manufacturing

312200

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Textile mills

313000

Demand change - share increases as automation in textile manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Textile product mills

314000

Demand change - share increases as automation in textile manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Apparel manufacturing

315000

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Veneer, plywood, and engineered wood product manufacturing

321200

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Other wood product manufacturing

321900

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

322100

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Converted paper product manufacturing

322200

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

324000

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Chemical manufacturing (3251,2,3,9)

3250A1

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Chemical manufacturing (3255,6)

3250A2

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing

325400

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Plastics product manufacturing

326100

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Rubber product manufacturing

326200

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

327000

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Iron and steel mills and ferroalloy manufacturing

331100

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Fabricated metal product manufacturing (3321,2,5,6,9)

3320A1

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Fabricated metal product manufacturing (3323,4)

3320A2

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Turned product and screw, nut, and bolt manufacturing

332720

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Machinery manufacturing (3331,2,4,9)

3330A1

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Commercial and service industry machinery manufacturing

333300

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Metalworking machinery manufacturing

333500

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Engine, turbine, and power transmission equipment manufacturing

333600

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Semiconductor and other electronic component manufacturing

334400

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing

334500

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Electric lighting equipment manufacturing

335100

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Household appliance manufacturing

335200

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Electrical equipment manufacturing

335300

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Other electrical equipment and component manufacturing

335900

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Motor vehicle manufacturing

336100

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Motor vehicle body and trailer manufacturing

336200

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Motor vehicle parts manufacturing

336300

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Aerospace product and parts manufacturing

336400

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Medical equipment and supplies manufacturing

339100

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Animal food manufacturing

311100

Demand change - share increases as increased automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to do maintenance and repairs.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Sugar and confectionery product manufacturing

311300

Demand change - share increases as increased automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to do maintenance and repairs.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty food manufacturing

311400

Demand change - share increases as increased automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to do maintenance and repairs.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Dairy product manufacturing

311500

Demand change - share increases as increased automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to do maintenance and repairs.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Animal slaughtering and processing

311600

Demand change - share increases as increased automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to do maintenance and repairs.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing

311800

Demand change - share increases as increased automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to do maintenance and repairs.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Other food manufacturing

311900

Demand change - share increases as increased automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to do maintenance and repairs.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Beverage manufacturing

312100

Demand change - share increases as increased automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to do maintenance and repairs.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Apparel manufacturing

315000

Demand change - share increases as increased automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to do maintenance and repairs.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Other wood product manufacturing

321900

Demand change - share increases as increased automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to do maintenance and repairs.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

322100

Demand change - share increases as increased automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to do maintenance and repairs.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Converted paper product manufacturing

322200

Demand change - share increases as increased automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to do maintenance and repairs.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

324000

Demand change - share increases as increased automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to do maintenance and repairs.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Chemical manufacturing (3251,2,3,9)

3250A1

Demand change - share increases as increased automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to do maintenance and repairs.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Chemical manufacturing (3255,6)

3250A2

Demand change - share increases as increased automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to do maintenance and repairs.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing

325400

Demand change - share increases as increased automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to do maintenance and repairs.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Plastics product manufacturing

326100

Demand change - share increases as increased automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to do maintenance and repairs.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Rubber product manufacturing

326200

Demand change - share increases as increased automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to do maintenance and repairs.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

327000

Demand change - share increases as increased automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to do maintenance and repairs.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Iron and steel mills and ferroalloy manufacturing

331100

Demand change - share increases as increased automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to do maintenance and repairs.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Fabricated metal product manufacturing (3321,2,5,6,9)

3320A1

Demand change - share increases as increased automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to do maintenance and repairs.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Fabricated metal product manufacturing (3323,4)

3320A2

Demand change - share increases as increased automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to do maintenance and repairs.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Machinery manufacturing (3331,2,4,9)

3330A1

Demand change - share increases as increased automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to do maintenance and repairs.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Engine, turbine, and power transmission equipment manufacturing

333600

Demand change - share increases as increased automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to do maintenance and repairs.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Semiconductor and other electronic component manufacturing

334400

Demand change - share increases as increased automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to do maintenance and repairs.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Electric lighting equipment manufacturing

335100

Demand change - share increases as increased automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to do maintenance and repairs.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Electrical equipment manufacturing

335300

Demand change - share increases as increased automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to do maintenance and repairs.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Other electrical equipment and component manufacturing

335900

Demand change - share increases as increased automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to do maintenance and repairs.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Motor vehicle parts manufacturing

336300

Demand change - share increases as increased automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to do maintenance and repairs.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Aerospace product and parts manufacturing

336400

Demand change - share increases as increased automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to do maintenance and repairs.

Millwrights

49-9044

Veneer, plywood, and engineered wood product manufacturing

321200

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to repair and service equipment.

Millwrights

49-9044

Other wood product manufacturing

321900

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to repair and service equipment.

Millwrights

49-9044

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

322100

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to repair and service equipment.

Millwrights

49-9044

Converted paper product manufacturing

322200

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to repair and service equipment.

Millwrights

49-9044

Chemical manufacturing (3251,2,3,9)

3250A1

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to repair and service equipment.

Millwrights

49-9044

Iron and steel mills and ferroalloy manufacturing

331100

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to repair and service equipment.

Millwrights

49-9044

Steel product manufacturing from purchased steel

331200

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to repair and service equipment.

Millwrights

49-9044

Fabricated metal product manufacturing (3321,2,5,6,9)

3320A1

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to repair and service equipment.

Millwrights

49-9044

Fabricated metal product manufacturing (3323,4)

3320A2

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to repair and service equipment.

Millwrights

49-9044

Machinery manufacturing (3331,2,4,9)

3330A1

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to repair and service equipment.

Millwrights

49-9044

Motor vehicle manufacturing

336100

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to repair and service equipment.

Millwrights

49-9044

Motor vehicle parts manufacturing

336300

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to repair and service equipment.

Millwrights

49-9044

Aerospace product and parts manufacturing

336400

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing will increase demand for these workers to repair and service equipment.

Telecommunications line installers and repairers

49-9052

Power and communication line and related structures construction

237130

Demand change - share increases as deployment of 5G smart technology requires massive installations of fiber optic cable, small cells, and new routers in businesses and homes.

Telecommunications line installers and repairers

49-9052

Electrical contractors and other wiring installation contractors

238210

Demand change - share increases as deployment of 5G smart technology requires massive installations of fiber optic cable, small cells, and new routers in businesses and homes.

Telecommunications line installers and repairers

49-9052

Telecommunications

517000

Demand change - share increases as deployment of 5G smart technology requires massive installations of fiber optic cable, small cells, and new routers in businesses and homes.

Watch repairers

49-9064

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share decreases as demand for watch repair services declines due to changes in technology such as cell phones and smart watches.

Wind turbine service technicians

49-9081

Wind electric power generation

221115

Demand change - share increases as wind electricity generation grows rapidly in the coming decade.

Wind turbine service technicians

49-9081

Power and communication line and related structures construction

237130

Demand change - share increases as wind electricity generation grows rapidly in the coming decade.

Wind turbine service technicians

49-9081

Commercial and industrial machinery and equipment (except automotive and electronic) repair and maintenance

811300

Demand change - share increases as wind electricity generation grows rapidly in the coming decade.

Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers

49-9091

Gambling industries (except casino hotels)

713200

Demand change - share decreases as casinos continue replacing coin operated machines with electronic machines that dispense paper receipts.

Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers

49-9091

Casino hotels

721120

Demand change - share decreases as casinos continue replacing coin operated machines with electronic machines that dispense paper receipts.

Locksmiths and safe repairers

49-9094

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share decreases as new smart locks, apps on smart phones, key kiosks, and voice-activated locks lessen the demand to hire a locksmith to open locks or create key copies.

Manufactured building and mobile home installers

49-9095

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share decreases as Dodd-Frank rules make it likely that loans for mobile home purchases will be characterized as high-risk, therefore increasing the costs to banks and customers of offering and securing these types of loans. Therefore, as access to financing and credit decreases and dries up, the demand for workers to install these types of homes will decrease.

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

51-1011

Animal food manufacturing

311100

Productivity change - share decreases as animal food manufacturers adopt automated parts of the production processing and employ fewer production workers.

Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers

51-2011

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as collaborative robotics increase efficiency, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Coil winders, tapers, and finishers

51-2021

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as collaborative robotics increase efficiency, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Engine and other machine assemblers

51-2031

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as collaborative robotics increase efficiency, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

51-2041

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as collaborative robotics increase efficiency, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Timing device assemblers and adjusters

51-2093

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as collaborative robotics increase efficiency, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Assemblers and fabricators, all other, including team assemblers

51-2098

Motor vehicle manufacturing

336100

Productivity change - share decreases as collaborative robotics increases efficiency, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Assemblers and fabricators, all other, including team assemblers

51-2098

Motor vehicle body and trailer manufacturing

336200

Productivity change - share decreases as collaborative robotics increases efficiency, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Assemblers and fabricators, all other, including team assemblers

51-2098

Motor vehicle parts manufacturing

336300

Productivity change - share decreases as collaborative robotics increases efficiency, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Assemblers and fabricators, all other, including team assemblers

51-2098

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as collaborative robotics increases efficiency, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Computer-controlled machine tool operators, metal and plastic

51-4011

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as computer-controlled machine tool programmers are able to control more machines at once, which means fewer operators are needed to handle them.

Computer numerically controlled machine tool programmers, metal and plastic

51-4012

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share increases as manufacturers increase efficiency through more CNC, automated, and programmable machines requiring programming by these workers.

Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4021

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as manufacturers are expected to use more CNC, automated, and programmable machines to perform some functions or tasks previously done by these workers.

Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4022

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as manufacturers are expected to use more CNC, automated, and programmable machines to perform some functions or tasks previously done by these workers.

Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4023

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as manufacturers are expected to use more CNC, automated, and programmable machines to perform some functions or tasks previously done by these workers.

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4031

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as manufacturers are expected to use more CNC, automated, and programmable machines to perform some functions or tasks previously done by these workers.

Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4032

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as manufacturers are expected to use more CNC, automated, and programmable machines to perform some functions or tasks previously done by these workers.

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4033

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as manufacturers are expected to use more CNC, automated, and programmable machines to perform some functions or tasks previously done by these workers.

Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4034

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as manufacturers are expected to use more CNC, automated, and programmable machines to perform some functions or tasks previously done by these workers.

Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4035

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as manufacturers are expected to use more CNC, automated, and programmable machines to perform some functions or tasks previously done by these workers.

Pourers and casters, metal

51-4052

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as robotics, CNC operated machines, and other programmable/automated machines replace less advanced machines. As a result, this will increase efficiency, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Model makers, metal and plastic

51-4061

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as robotics, CNC operated machines, and other programmable/automated machines replace less advanced machines. As a result, this will increase efficiency, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Patternmakers, metal and plastic

51-4062

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as some patternmaking tasks are done by programmable computer controlled machinery, requiring fewer of these workers.

Foundry mold and coremakers

51-4071

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as robotics, CNC operated machines, and other programmable/automated machines replace less advanced machines. As a result, this will increase efficiency, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Molding, coremaking, and casting machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4072

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as robotics, CNC operated machines, and other programmable/automated machines replace less advanced machines. As a result, this will increase efficiency, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Tool and die makers

51-4111

Converted paper product manufacturing

322200

Productivity change - share decreases as manufacturers use software programs to perform some functions, such as specification analyses or setting up machines for cutting metal, tasks typically performed by tool and die makers, allowing the same amount of output to be produced by fewer tool and die makers.

Tool and die makers

51-4111

Plastics product manufacturing

326100

Productivity change - share decreases as manufacturers use software programs to perform some functions, such as specification analyses or setting up machines for cutting metal, tasks typically performed by tool and die makers, allowing the same amount of output to be produced by fewer tool and die makers.

Tool and die makers

51-4111

Foundries

331500

Productivity change - share decreases as manufacturers use software programs to perform some functions, such as specification analyses or setting up machines for cutting metal, tasks typically performed by tool and die makers, allowing the same amount of output to be produced by fewer tool and die makers.

Tool and die makers

51-4111

Fabricated metal product manufacturing (3321,2,5,6,9)

3320A1

Productivity change - share decreases as manufacturers use software programs to perform some functions, such as specification analyses or setting up machines for cutting metal, tasks typically performed by tool and die makers, allowing the same amount of output to be produced by fewer tool and die makers.

Tool and die makers

51-4111

Machine shops

332710

Productivity change - share decreases as manufacturers use software programs to perform some functions, such as specification analyses or setting up machines for cutting metal, tasks typically performed by tool and die makers, allowing the same amount of output to be produced by fewer tool and die makers.

Tool and die makers

51-4111

Turned product and screw, nut, and bolt manufacturing

332720

Productivity change - share decreases as manufacturers use software programs to perform some functions, such as specification analyses or setting up machines for cutting metal, tasks typically performed by tool and die makers, allowing the same amount of output to be produced by fewer tool and die makers.

Tool and die makers

51-4111

Machinery manufacturing (3331,2,4,9)

3330A1

Productivity change - share decreases as manufacturers use software programs to perform some functions, such as specification analyses or setting up machines for cutting metal, tasks typically performed by tool and die makers, allowing the same amount of output to be produced by fewer tool and die makers.

Tool and die makers

51-4111

Metalworking machinery manufacturing

333500

Productivity change - share decreases as manufacturers use software programs to perform some functions, such as specification analyses or setting up machines for cutting metal, tasks typically performed by tool and die makers, allowing the same amount of output to be produced by fewer tool and die makers.

Tool and die makers

51-4111

Motor vehicle manufacturing

336100

Productivity change - share decreases as manufacturers use software programs to perform some functions, such as specification analyses or setting up machines for cutting metal, tasks typically performed by tool and die makers, allowing the same amount of output to be produced by fewer tool and die makers.

Tool and die makers

51-4111

Motor vehicle parts manufacturing

336300

Productivity change - share decreases as manufacturers use software programs to perform some functions, such as specification analyses or setting up machines for cutting metal, tasks typically performed by tool and die makers, allowing the same amount of output to be produced by fewer tool and die makers.

Tool and die makers

51-4111

Aerospace product and parts manufacturing

336400

Productivity change - share decreases as manufacturers use software programs to perform some functions, such as specification analyses or setting up machines for cutting metal, tasks typically performed by tool and die makers, allowing the same amount of output to be produced by fewer tool and die makers.

Welding, soldering, and brazing machine setters, operators, and tenders

51-4122

Motor vehicle parts manufacturing

336300

Productivity change - share decreases as usage of programmable machines such computer controlled machinery are increasing, resulting in fewer workers needed to perform the tasks.

Welding, soldering, and brazing machine setters, operators, and tenders

51-4122

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as robotics, CNC operated machines, and other programmable/automated machines replace less advanced machines. As a result, this will increase efficiency, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4191

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as robotics, CNC operated machines, and other programmable/automated machines replace less advanced machines. As a result, this will increase efficiency, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Layout workers, metal and plastic

51-4192

Fabricated metal product manufacturing (3323,4)

3320A2

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as the integration of programmable processes and equipment results in the replacement of workers.

Layout workers, metal and plastic

51-4192

Aerospace product and parts manufacturing

336400

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as the integration of programmable processes and equipment results in the replacement of workers.

Layout workers, metal and plastic

51-4192

Ship and boat building

336600

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as the integration of programmable processes and equipment results in the replacement of workers.

Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4193

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as robotics, CNC operated machines, and other programmable/automated machines replace less advanced machines. As a result, this will increase efficiency, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners

51-4194

Metalworking machinery manufacturing

333500

Productivity change - share decreases as some tasks in tool grinding are programmed, requiring fewer of these workers.

Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners

51-4194

Commercial and industrial machinery and equipment (except automotive and electronic) repair and maintenance

811300

Productivity change - share decreases as some tasks in tool grinding are programmed, requiring fewer of these workers.

Metal workers and plastic workers, all other

51-4199

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as the tasks of these machine operators are supplanted by the programmable computer controlled machinery, requiring fewer of these workers.

Prepress technicians and workers

51-5111

Printing and related support activities

323000

Productivity change - share decreases as software and hardware improvements increase the productivity of workers.

Prepress technicians and workers

51-5111

Newspaper publishers

511110

Productivity change - share decreases as software and hardware improvements increase the productivity of workers.

Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

51-6021

Drycleaning and laundry services

812300

Demand change - share decreases as demand declines due to the acceptance of casual dress in lieu of business attire, meaning less demand for dry cleaned and pressed clothes.

Nuclear power reactor operators

51-8011

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as improved equipment monitoring systems reduce the need to manually check plant equipment.

Power distributors and dispatchers

51-8012

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as improved equipment monitoring systems reduce the need to manually check plant equipment.

Power plant operators

51-8013

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as improved equipment monitoring systems reduce the need to manually check plant equipment.

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

51-8031

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as improved equipment monitoring systems reduce the need to manually check plant equipment.

Chemical plant and system operators

51-8091

Chemical manufacturing (3251,2,3,9)

3250A1

Productivity change - share decreases as process automation systems (PAS) will allow operators to make decisions faster and be more responsive, increasing plant efficiency and limiting time where production is less than optimized.

Crushing, grinding, and polishing machine setters, operators, and tenders

51-9021

Animal food manufacturing

311100

Productivity change - share decreases as new technologies that fully automate processing require fewer setters, operators, and tenders.

Crushing, grinding, and polishing machine setters, operators, and tenders

51-9021

Total employment

TE1000

Demand change - share decreases as machines are becoming capable of more functionalities and are more integrated with each other.

Grinding and polishing workers, hand

51-9022

Total employment

TE1000

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as automation increases capacity and reduces the need for as many manual workers.

Mixing and blending machine setters, operators, and tenders

51-9023

Animal food manufacturing

311100

Productivity change - share decreases as new technologies, including data usage and machine connectivity (integration) in the production process, are used in monitoring and adjusting production process.

Mixing and blending machine setters, operators, and tenders

51-9023

Other food manufacturing

311900

Productivity change - share decreases as greater integration of manufacturing processes will allow mixing and blending machine setters, operators, and tenders to do more with fewer workers.

Cutters and trimmers, hand

51-9031

Total employment

TE1000

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as improved integration of systems and precision reduce the need for cutters and trimmers.

Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

51-9041

Animal food manufacturing

311100

Productivity change - share decreases as new technologies, automation, and the use of data in the production processes will require fewer setters, operators, and tenders.

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

51-9061

Total employment

TE1000

Productivity change - share decreases as 3D scanning and related technologies increase productivity by enabling more accurate measurements/inspections in a shorter period of time by fewer inspectors.

Dental laboratory technicians

51-9081

Medical equipment and supplies manufacturing

339100

Demand change - share increases as an aging population requires more dental products, such as dentures, creating increased demand for dental laboratory technicians who make these products.

Medical appliance technicians

51-9082

Medical equipment and supplies manufacturing

339100

Demand change - share increases as an aging population needs more medical devices like braces and prosthetics.

Ophthalmic laboratory technicians

51-9083

Medical equipment and supplies manufacturing

339100

Demand change - share increases as an aging population means more demand for contact lenses and glasses.

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

51-9111

Animal food manufacturing

311100

Productivity change - share decreases as automated filling, bagging, packing, and palletizing equipment is used in new facilities and will require fewer operators and tenders.

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

51-9151

Pharmacies and drug stores

446110

Demand change - share decreases as technology allows consumers to easily print their own photos instead of relying on a service. People also print fewer photos and store them on computer or online.

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

51-9151

Other personal services

812900

Demand change - share decreases as technology allows consumers to easily print their own photos instead of relying on a service. People also print fewer photos and store them on computer or online.

Helpers--production workers

51-9198

Animal food manufacturing

311100

Productivity change - share decreases as new technologies fully automate parts of the packaging, casing, and palletizing lines.

Helpers--production workers

51-9198

Temporary help services

561320

Demand change - share increases as the lower cost and flexibility of hiring contracted temporary workers supplement a lack of highly experienced workers as baby boomers retire and more young people opt to attend college.

First-Line supervisors of transportation and material moving workers, except aircraft cargo handling supervisors

53-1048

Warehousing and storage

493000

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as increased use of automated guided vehicles requires fewer operators, resulting in fewer supervisors.

Flight attendants

53-2031

Scheduled air transportation

481100

Demand change - share increases as airlines continue to replace smaller planes with larger aircraft or add more seats to the existing planes, which will result in more flight attendants on average per aircraft.

Bus drivers, school or special client

53-3022

School and employee bus transportation

485400

Sourcing change - share increases as more school districts contract out bus transportation.

Bus drivers, school or special client

53-3022

Elementary and secondary schools; local

611103

Sourcing change - share decreases as more local schools contract out bus transportation.

Driver/sales workers

53-3031

Vending machine operators

454200

Sourcing change - share decreases as technological improvements in vending machines provide automatic reporting (back to supply chain) and thus allow drivers to deliver wares to more machines on a single route.

Driver/sales workers

53-3031

Full-service restaurants

722511

Sourcing change - share decreases as restaurant food delivery will increasingly be handled by delivery companies that utilize smartphone apps and classify workers as independent contractors.

Light truck or delivery services drivers

53-3033

Couriers and express delivery services

492100

Demand change - share increases as continued e-commerce growth results in greater volumes of home delivery which requires more drivers relative to other occupations.

Locomotive firers

53-4012

Rail transportation

482000

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as the tasks of watching for rights-of-way, train signals, and looking out for obstructions will be automatically handled by Positive Train Control (PTC).

Parking lot attendants

53-6021

Other personal services

812900

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as automated parking machines replace the tasks previously done by human parking attendants.

Conveyor operators and tenders

53-7011

Merchant wholesalers, durable goods (4232,3,5,6,7,9)

4230A1

Productivity change - share decreases as firms use technology to supplant some functions of these operators.

Conveyor operators and tenders

53-7011

Warehousing and storage

493000

Productivity change - share decreases as firms use technology to supplant some functions of these operators.

Crane and tower operators

53-7021

Support activities for water transportation

488300

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as increased ship sizes are causing ports to automate their operations in order to meet shipping schedules and demand.

Hoist and winch operators

53-7041

Support activities for water transportation

488300

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as increased ship sizes are causing ports to automate their operations in order to meet shipping schedules and demand.

Industrial truck and tractor operators

53-7051

Warehousing and storage

493000

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases due to the increased use of automated guided vehicles, which is automating the jobs of these operators.

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

53-7062

Animal food manufacturing

311100

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as automated filling, bagging, packing, and palletizing equipment is used in new facilities and will require fewer laborers.

Packers and packagers, hand

53-7064

Animal food manufacturing

311100

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as automated filling, bagging, packing, and palletizing equipment is used in new facilities instead of hand packers.

Packers and packagers, hand

53-7064

Grocery and specialty food stores

4450A1

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as new methods of self-checkout are adopted that customers are likely to find more consumer-friendly than the original method of self-checkout.

Packers and packagers, hand

53-7064

Warehousing and storage

493000

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as retailers install increasingly sophisticated robotics technology in their warehouses.

Mine shuttle car operators

53-7111

Coal mining

212100

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as the industry adopts autonomous vehicles.

Material moving workers, all other

53-7199

Warehousing and storage

493000

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as automated guided vehicles require fewer material moving workers.

Source: Employment Projections program, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

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Last Modified Date: September 4, 2019