Real gross domestic product by major demand category

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Table 4.2 Real gross domestic product by major demand category

Category

Billions of chained 2012 dollars

Annual rate of change

Contribution to percent change in real GDP

1998

2008

2018

2028

1998–08

2008–18

2018–28

1998–08

2008–18

2018–28

Gross domestic product

$12,038.3

$15,604.7

$18,571.3

$22,189.8

2.6

1.8

1.8

2.6

1.8

1.8

Personal consumption expenditures

7,813.8

10,592.8

12,890.6

15,727.9

3.1

2.0

2.0

2.1

1.4

1.4

Gross private domestic investment

2,026.3

2,462.9

3,387.2

4,405.2

2.0

3.2

2.7

0.4

0.5

0.5

Exports

1,212.9

1,925.4

2,546.6

3,421.3

4.7

2.8

3.0

0.5

0.4

0.4

Imports1

1,536.4

2,587.1

3,460.6

4,558.3

5.3

3.0

2.8

-0.7

-0.5

-0.4

Government consumption expenditures and gross investment

2,533.0

3,195.6

3,177.8

3,269.8

2.4

-0.1

0.3

0.4

0.0

0.0

Federal defense

543.3

791.5

738.2

727.0

3.8

-0.7

-0.2

0.2

0.0

0.0

Federal nondefense

307.4

427.3

489.1

479.8

3.3

1.4

-0.2

0.1

0.0

0.0

State and local

1,692.4

1,978.7

1,948.9

2,054.6

1.6

-0.2

0.5

0.2

0.0

0.1

 

Residual2

-21.3

13.1

31.3

-67.6

Addendum

GDP per capita, chained 2012 dollars

43,585.5

51,263.7

56,706.2

63,236.9

1.6

1.0

1.1

Footnotes:
  1 Imports are subtracted from the other components of GDP because they are not produced in the United States.
  2 The residual is calculated as real gross domestic product, plus imports, less other components.
Note: Dash indicates data not computable or not applicable.
Source: Historical data: Bureau of Economic Analysis; Projected data: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

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Last Modified Date: September 4, 2019