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Bureau of Labor Statistics > Productivity > Publications > Articles and Research

Labor Productivity Articles

Articles analyzing changes in output per hours worked—a measure of economic performance and efficiency—in broad sectors of the U.S. economy and detailed industries, over business cycles and longer-term periods. For different topics see Articles and Research.



All Industries

  • Measuring Quarterly Labor Productivity by Industry. June 2016. (PDF)
  • Industry Labor Productivity Trends from 2000 to 2010. March 2013. (PDF)
  • Labor Productivity Since 2000, by Sector and Industry. February 2008. (PDF)
  • Industry Productivity Trends under the North American Industry Classification System. November 2004. (PDF)
  • Unit Labor Costs for selected Industries, 1987-97. November 1999 (PDF)
  • BLS Completes Major Expansion of Industry Productivity Series. September 1998. (PDF)
  • Productivity in industry and government, 1973-94. November 1996 (PDF)
  • BLS Modernizes Industry Labor Productivity Program. July 1995. (PDF)
  • Productivity in Industry and Government, 1973–92. August 1994. (PDF)
  • Productivity in Industry and Government, 1973–91. July 1993. (PDF)

Natural Resources and Mining

  • Productivity in Crude Oil and Gas Production, 1959–1990. March 1992. (PDF)



  • Productivity Growth in 'High-Tech' Manufacturing Industries. March 2002. (PDF)
  • Productivity in the Fabricated Plate Work Industry: 1982–94. May 1997. (PDF)
  • Productivity Trends in the Mobile Homes Industry. May 1997. (PDF)
  • Productivity Growth Improves in House Furnishings Industry. March 1996. (PDF)
  • Productivity in Hardwood Dimension and Flooring. October 1994. (PDF)
  • Productivity in Aircraft Manufacturing. June 1993. (PDF)
  • Industry Productivity in Natural and Processed Cheese. April 1993. (PDF)
  • Productivity in the Nuts and Bolts Industry, 1958–90. October 1992. (PDF)
  • Productivity Trends: Prepared Fish and Seafoods Industry. October 1992. (PDF)
  • Productivity in Wood Containers. October 1992. (PDF)
  • Productivity in the Rubber and Plastics Hose and Belting Industry. July 1990. (PDF)
  • Productivity Trends in the Photographic Equipment and Supplies Industry. June 1990. (PDF)
  • Productivity Trends in Scrap and Waste Processing. April 1990. (PDF)

Retail and Wholesale Trade

  • Checking Out Productivity in Grocery Stores. December 2019. (PDF)
  • Productivity measures for retail trade: data and issues. July 2005. (PDF)
  • Labor in Wholesale Trade, 1990–2000. December 2002. (PDF)
  • Labor Productivity in the Retail Trade Industry, 1987–99. December 2001. (PDF)
  • Productivity Trends in Two Retail Trade Industries, 1987–95. July 1997. (PDF)
  • Productivity in Retail Miscellaneous Shopping Goods Stores. October 1995. (PDF)

Transportation and Warehousing


Financial Activities

  • Improved Measures of Commercial Banking Output and Productivity. July 2012. (PDF)

Education and Health Care Services

Total Services

  • Additional Service Industry Productivity Measures (architectural services (NAICS 54131) and engineering services (NAICS 54133)). February 2006 (PDF)
  • Additional Service Industry Productivity Measures (video tape and disc rental (NAICS 53223), travel agencies (NAICS 56151), and janitorial services (56172). September 2004 (PDF)
  • Additional Transportation and Service Productivity Measures (local trucking without storage (SIC 4212) and public warehousing and storage (SIC 422) - advertising agencies (SIC 7311), prepackaged software (SIC 7372), truck rental and leasing (SIC 7513), and passenger car rental (7514)). January 2003 (PDF)
  • Measuring Productivity in Service Industries. June 1982. (PDF)

International Comparisons

  • Providing Comparable International Labor Statistics. June 2002. (PDF)
  • A Perspective on U.S. and Foreign Compensation Costs in Manufacturing. June 2002. (PDF)
  • Comparing 50 Years of Labor Productivity in U.S. and Foreign Manufacturing. June 2002. (PDF)
  • A Perspective on the U.S.-Canada Manufacturing Productivity Gap. February 2001. (PDF)
  • U.S. and Foreign Productivity and Unit Labor Costs. February 1997. (PDF)
  • International Comparisons of Manufacturing Compensation. October 1995. (PDF)
  • Manufacturing Multifactor Productivity in Three Countries. July 1995. (PDF)
  • Manufacturing Costs, Productivity, and Competitiveness: 1979–93. October 1994. (PDF)
  • Japan's low unemployment: A BLS update and revision. Octobers 1993. (PDF)
  • International comparisons of compensation costs. August 1991. (PDF)
  • Union membership statistics in 12 countries. December 1991. (PDF)