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Economic News Release
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Employment Situation Summary

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until		USDL-22-0015
8:30 a.m. (ET) Friday, January 7, 2022

Technical information: 
 Household data:	(202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:	(202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:		(202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


			  THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- DECEMBER 2021


Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 199,000 in December, and the unemployment rate
declined to 3.9 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Employment
continued to trend up in leisure and hospitality, in professional and business services,
in manufacturing, in construction, and in transportation and warehousing.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household survey
measures labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic characteristics. The
establishment survey measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. For
more information about the concepts and statistical methodology used in these two surveys,
see the Technical Note.

 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|                 Revision of Seasonally Adjusted Household Survey Data                 |
|											|
| Seasonally adjusted household survey data have been revised using updated seasonal 	|
| adjustment factors, a procedure done at the end of each calendar year. Seasonally 	|
| adjusted estimates back to January 2017 were subject to revision. The unemployment 	|
| rates for January 2021 through November 2021 (as originally published and as revised) |
| appear in table A at the end of this news release, along with additional information	|
| about the revisions.									|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|


Household Survey Data

The unemployment rate declined by 0.3 percentage point to 3.9 percent in December, and the
number of unemployed persons decreased by 483,000 to 6.3 million. Over the year, these 
measures are down by 2.8 percentage points and 4.5 million, respectively. In February 2020,
prior to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, the unemployment rate was 3.5 percent, and 
unemployed persons numbered 5.7 million. (See table A-1. See the box note at the end of 
this news release for more information about how the household survey and its measures were
affected by the coronavirus pandemic.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men (3.6 percent), adult
women (3.6 percent), and Whites (3.2 percent) declined in December. The jobless rates for 
teenagers (10.9 percent), Blacks (7.1 percent), Asians (3.8 percent), and Hispanics (4.9 
percent) showed little or no change over the month. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

Among the unemployed, the number of permanent job losers, at 1.7 million in December, 
declined by 202,000 over the month and is down by 1.8 million over the year. The number of
persons on temporary layoff was little changed at 812,000 in December but is down by 2.3
million over the year. The number of permanent job losers in December is 408,000 higher 
than in February 2020, while the number on temporary layoff has essentially returned to 
its February 2020 level. (See table A-11.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) declined by 
185,000 to 2.0 million in December. This measure is down from 4.0 million a year earlier 
but is 887,000 higher than in February 2020. The long-term unemployed accounted for 31.7 
percent of the total unemployed in December. (See table A-12.)

The labor force participation rate was unchanged at 61.9 percent in December but remains 
1.5 percentage points lower than in February 2020. The employment-population ratio 
increased by 0.2 percentage point to 59.5 percent in December but is 1.7 percentage points
below its February 2020 level. Over the year, these measures have increased by 0.4 
percentage point and 2.1 percentage points, respectively. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons, at 3.9 million in December,
decreased by 337,000 over the month. The over-the-year decline of 2.2 million brings this
measure to 461,000 below its February 2020 level. These individuals, who would have 
preferred full-time employment, were working part time because their hours had been 
reduced or they were unable to find full-time jobs. (See table A-8.)

The number of persons not in the labor force who currently want a job was little changed at
5.7 million in December. This measure decreased by 1.6 million over the year but is 717,000
higher than in February 2020. These individuals were not counted as unemployed because they
were not actively looking for work during the 4 weeks preceding the survey or were 
unavailable to take a job. (See table A-1.)

Among those not in the labor force who wanted a job, the number of persons marginally 
attached to the labor force was essentially unchanged at 1.6 million in December. These 
individuals wanted and were available for work and had looked for a job sometime in the 
prior 12 months but had not looked for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. The number
of discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached who believed that no jobs were
available for them, was also essentially unchanged over the month, at 463,000. (See Summary
table A.)

Household Survey Supplemental Data

In December, the share of employed persons who teleworked because of the coronavirus 
pandemic was 11.1 percent, little different from November. These data refer to employed 
persons who teleworked or worked at home for pay at some point in the 4 weeks preceding 
the survey specifically because of the pandemic.

In December, 3.1 million persons reported that they had been unable to work because their
employer closed or lost business due to the pandemic--that is, they did not work at all 
or worked fewer hours at some point in the 4 weeks preceding the survey due to the 
pandemic. This measure was down from the level of 3.6 million in November. Among those who
reported in December that they were unable to work because of pandemic-related closures or
lost business, 15.9 percent received at least some pay from their employer for the hours
not worked, little changed from the prior month.

Among those not in the labor force in December, 1.1 million persons were prevented from 
looking for work due to the pandemic, little changed from November. (To be counted as 
unemployed, by definition, individuals must be either actively looking for work or on 
temporary layoff.)

These supplemental data come from questions added to the household survey beginning in
May 2020 to help gauge the effects of the pandemic on the labor market. The data are not
seasonally adjusted. Tables with estimates from the supplemental questions for all months
are available online at www.bls.gov/cps/effects-of-the-coronavirus-covid-19-pandemic.htm.

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 199,000 in December. Job growth averaged 537,000
per month in 2021. Nonfarm employment has increased by 18.8 million since April 2020 but
is down by 3.6 million, or 2.3 percent, from its pre-pandemic level in February 2020. In
December, employment continued to trend up in leisure and hospitality, in professional 
and business services, in manufacturing, in construction, and in transportation and 
warehousing. (See table B-1. See the box note at the end of this news release for more 
information about how the establishment survey and its measures were affected by the 
coronavirus pandemic.)

Employment in leisure and hospitality continued to trend up in December (+53,000). Leisure
and hospitality has added 2.6 million jobs in 2021, but employment in the industry is down
by 1.2 million, or 7.2 percent, since February 2020. Employment in food services and
drinking places rose by 43,000 in December but is down by 653,000 since February 2020.

Employment in professional and business services continued its upward trend in December 
(+43,000). Over the month, job gains occurred in computer systems design and related 
services (+10,000), in architectural and engineering services (+9,000), and in scientific 
research and development services (+6,000). Employment in professional and business 
services overall is slightly below (-35,000) its level in February 2020. 

Manufacturing added 26,000 jobs in December, primarily in durable goods industries. A job
gain in machinery (+8,000) reflected the return of workers from a strike. Manufacturing 
employment is down by 219,000 since February 2020. 

Construction employment rose by 22,000 in December, following monthly gains averaging 
38,000 over the prior 3 months. In December, job gains occurred in nonresidential 
specialty trade contractors (+13,000) and in heavy and civil engineering construction 
(+10,000). Construction employment is 88,000 below its February 2020 level.

Employment in transportation and warehousing increased by 19,000 in December. Job gains 
occurred in support activities for transportation (+7,000), in air transportation (+6,000),
and in warehousing and storage (+5,000). Employment in couriers and messengers was 
essentially unchanged. Since February 2020, employment in transportation and warehousing is
up by 218,000, reflecting job growth in couriers and messengers (+202,000) and in 
warehousing and storage (+181,000).

Employment in wholesale trade increased by 14,000 in December but is 129,000 lower than in
February 2020.

Mining employment rose by 7,000 in December. Employment in the industry is down by 81,000
from a peak in January 2019. 

In December, employment showed little or no change in other major industries, including 
retail trade, information, financial activities, health care, other services, and 
government. 

In December, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls 
increased by 19 cents to $31.31. Over the past 12 months, average hourly earnings have 
increased by 4.7 percent. In December, average hourly earnings of private-sector 
production and nonsupervisory employees rose by 18 cents to $26.61. (See tables B-3
and B-8.)

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls was unchanged at 34.7
hours in December. In manufacturing, the average workweek edged down by 0.1 hour to 40.3
hours, and overtime edged down by 0.1 hour to 3.2 hours. The average workweek for 
production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls edged up by 0.1 hour
to 34.2 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for October was revised up by 102,000, 
from +546,000 to +648,000, and the change for November was revised up by 39,000, from 
+210,000 to +249,000. With these revisions, employment in October and November combined
is 141,000 higher than previously reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional 
reports received from businesses and government agencies since the last published 
estimates and from the recalculation of seasonal factors.) 

_____________
The Employment Situation for January is scheduled to be released on Friday, February 4,
2022, at 8:30 a.m. (ET).


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|               Coronavirus (COVID-19) Impact on December 2021 Household                |
|		             and Establishment Survey Data             			|
|											|
| Data collection for both surveys was affected by the pandemic. In the establishment 	|
| survey, more data continued to be collected by web than in months prior to the 	|
| pandemic. In the household survey, for the safety of both interviewers and 		|
| respondents, in-person interviews were conducted only when telephone interviews could |
| not be done. 										|
|											|
| As in previous months, some workers affected by the pandemic who should have been 	|
| classified in the household survey as unemployed on temporary layoff were instead 	|
| misclassified as employed but not at work. Since March 2020, BLS has published an 	|
| upper-bound estimate of what the unemployment rate might have been had misclassified  |
| workers been included among the unemployed. The degree of misclassification was 	|
| highest in the early months of the pandemic and has been considerably lower in recent |
| months. In April 2020, this exercise suggested the unemployment rate would have been  |
| 4.8 percentage points higher than reported. Repeating this exercise, the unemployment |
| rates for October 2021 through December 2021 would have been 0.1 percentage point 	|
| higher than reported. For details on how to perform this calculation, see 		|
| www.bls.gov/covid19/effects-of-covid-19-pandemic-and-response-on-the-employment-	|
| situation-news-release.htm#ques12.  							|
|											|
| For each month from March 2020 to December 2021, BLS has published a summary of the 	|
| impact of the pandemic on The Employment Situation news release and data. The impact 	|
| summary for December is available at 							|
| www.bls.gov/covid19/employment-situation-covid19-faq-december-2021.htm. Beginning 	|
| with publication of January 2022 data in February 2022, this month-specific impact 	|
| summary will be discontinued. However, information related to the impact of the 	|
| pandemic will continue to be available at www.bls.gov/covid19/effects-of-covid-19-	|
| pandemic-and-response-on-the-employment-situation-news-release.htm.			|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|                       Upcoming Changes to Household Survey Data                       |
|											|
| Effective with the release of The Employment Situation for January 2022 on February 	|
| 4, 2022, new population controls will be used in the household survey estimation 	|
| process. These new controls will reflect a "blended base," which is 2010 Census-based |
| and controlled to elements from the 2020 Census and other sources. In accordance with |
| usual practice, historical data will not be revised to incorporate the new controls; 	|
| consequently, household survey data for January 2022 will not be directly comparable  |
| with data for December 2021 or earlier periods. A table showing the effects of the 	|
| new controls on the major labor force series will be included in the January 2022 	|
| news release. 									|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|                    Upcoming Revisions to Establishment Survey Data                    |
|											|
| Effective with the release of The Employment Situation for January 2022 on February 	|
| 4, 2022, the establishment survey will revise nonfarm payroll employment, hours, and 	|
| earnings data to reflect the annual benchmark process and updated seasonal adjustment |
| factors. Not seasonally adjusted data beginning with April 2020 and seasonally 	|
| adjusted data beginning with January 2017 are subject to revision. Consistent with 	|
| standard practice, additional historical data may be revised as a result of the 	|
| benchmark process.									|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|


                  Revision of Seasonally Adjusted Household Survey Data                 


At the end of each calendar year, BLS routinely updates the seasonal adjustment factors 
for the national labor force series derived from the household survey. As a result of 
this process, seasonally adjusted data for January 2017 through November 2021 were 
subject to revision. (Not seasonally adjusted data were not subject to revision.) 

Table A shows the unemployment rates for January 2021 through November 2021, as first 
published and as revised. The rate changed by one-tenth of a percentage point in 3 of the
11 months and was unchanged in the remaining 8 months. Revised seasonally adjusted data
for other major labor force series beginning in December 2020 appear in table B. 

More information on this year's revisions to seasonally adjusted household series is 
available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cps-seas-adjustment-methodology.pdf. Detailed 
information on the seasonal adjustment methodology is found at 
www.bls.gov/cps/seasonal-adjustment-methodology.htm. 

Historical data for the household series contained in the A tables of this news release
can be accessed at www.bls.gov/cps/cpsatabs.htm. Revised historical seasonally adjusted
data are available at www.bls.gov/cps/data.htm and 
https://download.bls.gov/pub/time.series/ln/.


Table A. Seasonally adjusted unemployment rates in 2021 and change due to revision,
January  November 2021


Month                  As First Computed          As Revised              Change

January.............                 6.3                 6.4                 0.1
February............                 6.2                 6.2                 0.0
March...............                 6.0                 6.0                 0.0
April...............                 6.1                 6.0                -0.1
May.................                 5.8                 5.8                 0.0
June................                 5.9                 5.9                 0.0
July................                 5.4                 5.4                 0.0
August..............                 5.2                 5.2                 0.0
September...........                 4.8                 4.7                -0.1
October.............                 4.6                 4.6                 0.0
November............                 4.2                 4.2                 0.0




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table B. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age 2020 2021
Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

261,230 260,851 260,918 261,003 261,103 261,210 261,338 261,469 261,611 261,766 261,908 262,029 262,136

Civilian labor force

160,671 160,184 160,359 160,631 160,978 160,801 161,114 161,375 161,505 161,471 161,610 162,126 162,294

Participation rate

61.5 61.4 61.5 61.5 61.7 61.6 61.6 61.7 61.7 61.7 61.7 61.9 61.9

Employed

149,883 150,004 150,367 150,940 151,259 151,550 151,612 152,704 153,167 153,806 154,234 155,324 155,975

Employment-population ratio

57.4 57.5 57.6 57.8 57.9 58.0 58.0 58.4 58.5 58.8 58.9 59.3 59.5

Unemployed

10,789 10,180 9,992 9,691 9,719 9,251 9,502 8,671 8,339 7,666 7,375 6,802 6,319

Unemployment rate

6.7 6.4 6.2 6.0 6.0 5.8 5.9 5.4 5.2 4.7 4.6 4.2 3.9

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

118,010 117,864 117,902 117,949 118,003 118,059 118,125 118,192 118,261 118,337 118,406 118,466 118,520

Civilian labor force

82,236 82,191 82,114 82,048 82,384 82,297 82,499 82,544 82,672 82,851 82,703 83,007 82,902

Participation rate

69.7 69.7 69.6 69.6 69.8 69.7 69.8 69.8 69.9 70.0 69.8 70.1 69.9

Employed

76,949 77,185 77,203 77,262 77,423 77,489 77,665 78,135 78,480 78,952 79,164 79,736 79,892

Employment-population ratio

65.2 65.5 65.5 65.5 65.6 65.6 65.7 66.1 66.4 66.7 66.9 67.3 67.4

Unemployed

5,287 5,006 4,911 4,786 4,961 4,808 4,834 4,410 4,192 3,899 3,539 3,272 3,010

Unemployment rate

6.4 6.1 6.0 5.8 6.0 5.8 5.9 5.3 5.1 4.7 4.3 3.9 3.6

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

126,681 126,507 126,546 126,594 126,648 126,704 126,770 126,837 126,906 126,982 127,051 127,112 127,167

Civilian labor force

72,494 72,087 72,255 72,635 72,486 72,499 72,756 72,934 72,862 72,644 72,929 73,134 73,455

Participation rate

57.2 57.0 57.1 57.4 57.2 57.2 57.4 57.5 57.4 57.2 57.4 57.5 57.8

Employed

67,933 67,776 68,005 68,486 68,436 68,633 68,747 69,306 69,390 69,555 69,790 70,257 70,795

Employment-population ratio

53.6 53.6 53.7 54.1 54.0 54.2 54.2 54.6 54.7 54.8 54.9 55.3 55.7

Unemployed

4,561 4,311 4,250 4,149 4,050 3,866 4,008 3,628 3,472 3,089 3,139 2,876 2,660

Unemployment rate

6.3 6.0 5.9 5.7 5.6 5.3 5.5 5.0 4.8 4.3 4.3 3.9 3.6

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

16,538 16,481 16,470 16,460 16,451 16,446 16,443 16,440 16,443 16,447 16,451 16,450 16,449

Civilian labor force

5,940 5,906 5,989 5,948 6,107 6,005 5,859 5,897 5,971 5,976 5,978 5,985 5,936

Participation rate

35.9 35.8 36.4 36.1 37.1 36.5 35.6 35.9 36.3 36.3 36.3 36.4 36.1

Employed

5,000 5,043 5,158 5,192 5,399 5,428 5,200 5,264 5,297 5,298 5,281 5,331 5,287

Employment-population ratio

30.2 30.6 31.3 31.5 32.8 33.0 31.6 32.0 32.2 32.2 32.1 32.4 32.1

Unemployed

940 863 831 756 708 578 660 633 675 678 697 654 649

Unemployment rate

15.8 14.6 13.9 12.7 11.6 9.6 11.3 10.7 11.3 11.3 11.7 10.9 10.9

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation.

NOTE: Seasonally adjusted data have been revised to reflect updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Last Modified Date: January 07, 2022