CES National Benchmark Article (PDF)

BLS Establishment Survey National Estimates Revised to Incorporate March 2016 Benchmarks

Authored by Caila Pinkleton and Frances Tirado.

Caila Pinkleton is an economist and Frances Tirado is a statistician in the Division of Current Employment Statistics – National, Office of Employment and Unemployment Statistics, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Telephone: (202) 691‑6555; email: Contact CES

Introduction

With the release of January 2017 data on February 3, 2017, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) introduced its annual revision of national estimates of employment, hours, and earnings from the Current Employment Statistics (CES) monthly survey of nonfarm establishments. Each year, the CES survey realigns its sample-based estimates to incorporate universe counts of employment—a process known as benchmarking. Comprehensive counts of employment, or benchmarks, are derived primarily from unemployment insurance (UI) tax reports that nearly all employers are required to file with State Workforce Agencies.

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Summary of the benchmark revisions

The March 2016 benchmark level for total nonfarm employment is 142,814,000.

Compared with the sample-based, published estimate for March 2016, the March 2016 benchmark level is 81,000 lower. This is a downward adjustment of −0.1 percent.

Table 1 below shows the recent history of total nonfarm percent and level benchmark revisions. Over the prior ten years, the annual benchmark revision at the total nonfarm level has averaged 0.3 percent (in absolute terms), with an absolute range of 0.0 percent to 0.7 percent.

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Table 1. Percent and level differences between nonfarm employment benchmarks and estimates by industry supersector, March 2006 – 2016 (in thousands) (1)
CES Industry Code CES Industry Title Type 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011(2) 2012 2013(3) 2014 2015(4) 2016

00-000000

Total nonfarm Percent 0.6 -0.2 -0.1 -0.7 -0.3 0.1 0.3 -0.1 0 -0.1 -0.1

Level 752 -293 -89 -902 -378 162 424 -119 67 -172 -81

05-000000

Total private Percent 0.7 -0.2 -0.1 -0.9 -0.4 0.1 0.4 -0.1 0.1 -0.2 -0.1

Level 749 -241 -137 -933 -391 134 481 -126 105 -232 -151

10-000000

Mining and logging Percent 1.2 0 0.4 -3.5 -3 -0.4 1.6 -1.2 -1.8 -2.2 -3.2

Level 8 0 3 -25 -20 -3 13 -10 -16 -19 -22

20-000000

Construction Percent 2.6 0.1 0.7 -2.9 -1.3 -0.5 1.8 0.3 1.6 0.6 0.7

Level 189 6 49 -171 -67 -26 93 14 90 39 47

30-000000

Manufacturing Percent -0.1 -1 -0.1 -0.7 -1 0.1 -0.2 0.2 0.4 -0.1 0.5

Level -21 -137 -17 -84 -119 9 -25 23 43 -12 58

40-000000

Trade, transportation, and utilities Percent 0.6 0.5 0.2 -1.2 -0.6 0.4 0.6 -0.5 -0.1 0 -0.4

Level 158 140 65 -300 -143 95 145 -131 -31 -5 -110

41-420000

Wholesale trade Percent 0.8 0.4 -0.7 -1.2 -2.3 -0.2 0.8 -0.4 -0.8 -0.7 -1.1

Level 47 21.5 -43.1 -68 -124.5 -13.1 45.3 -20.2 -45.4 -41.3 -66.6

42-000000

Retail trade Percent 0.5 0.7 0.6 -1.6 -0.1 0.6 0.5 -0.8 0 -0.2 -0.8

Level 78 107.5 92.8 -235.6 -18.4 83.8 78.9 -110.3 5.5 -23.5 -118.2

43-000000

Transportation and warehousing Percent 1 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.5 0.7 0.1 0.2 1.4 1.7

Level 44.9 11.5 15 9.9 3.1 22.4 29.4 3.6 9.7 65.3 83.5

44-220000

Utilities Percent -2.1 0 0 -1.2 -0.6 0.5 -1.5 -0.8 -0.1 -0.8 -1.6

Level -11.4 -0.2 -0.2 -6.8 -3.4 2.8 -8.5 -4.6 -0.6 -4.7 -8.7

50-000000

Information Percent -0.5 -1.8 0.3 -1.5 -0.4 -0.4 1.8 -0.2 2.4 -1.6 -0.1

Level -15 -54 8 -42 -11 -12 47 -5 66 -44 -2

55-000000

Financial activities Percent 0.4 -1.3 -0.3 -0.1 0.4 0.9 0.6 -0.1 0.2 -0.1 0

Level 35 -111 -23 -4 34 69 45 -10 19 -9 -4

60-000000

Professional and business services Percent 1.3 0.2 -0.4 -0.8 0 0.7 0 0 -0.8 -0.6 -0.6

Level 230 44 -63 -137 -3 125 2 4 -147 -110 -125

65-000000

Education and health services Percent 0.5 -0.2 -0.1 -0.3 0 -0.5 0 -0.3 -0.1 0 -0.4

Level 96 -39 -17 -56 7 -108 -2 -61 -16 -7 -83

70-000000

Leisure and hospitality Percent 0.3 -0.8 -1.1 -0.6 -0.6 0.7 0.8 0.5 0.3 -0.3 0.7

Level 42 -108 -151 -72 -80 93 104 72 38 -45 102

80-000000

Other services Percent 0.5 0.3 0.2 -0.8 0.2 -2 1.1 -0.4 1.1 -0.4 -0.2

Level 27 18 9 -42 11 -108 59 -22 59 -20 -12

90-000000

Government Percent 0 -0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 -0.3 0 -0.2 0.3 0.3

Level 3 -52 48 31 13 28 -57 7 -38 60 70

Footnotes
(1) The differences listed in this table reflect the error due to normal benchmarking procedures. Typically this error is equal to the March benchmarked level minus the published March estimated level. However in some years, other factors beyond normal benchmarking procedures influence the difference between the benchmarked and published March estimate levels. Those years are footnoted.
(2) A review of industries for the possible presence of noncovered employment in benchmark 2011 yielded 13 additional industries. As a result of including these industries, employment in the amount of 95,000 was added to the total nonfarm benchmark level. The difference between the benchmarked and published March 2011 estimate level was 162,000. For this table, the 95,000 amount was added to the original published total nonfarm and total private March 2011 estimates before calculating the percent and level differences. Portions of the 95,000 amount were also added as appropriate to the original published March 2011 estimates of supersectors financial activities and education and health services before calculating the percent and level differences.
(3) The percent and level differences in this column reflect reconstructions to series within CES supersectors financial activities and education and healthcare services. Each first quarter, the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) program, whose data account for approximately 97 percent of the CES universe scope (see www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm#section1), incorporates updated industry assignments. In 2013, these updates included two substantial groups of nonrandom, noneconomic code changes, one to funds, trusts, and other financial vehicles (NAICS 525), and the other, a reclassification of approximately 466,000 in employment from private households (NAICS 814), which is out of scope for CES, to services for the elderly and persons with disabilities (NAICS 62412), which is in scope. These changes also had an impact, beyond what would be considered typical for a given benchmark year, on corresponding CES series. For more information about the changes to these industries, see the QCEW First Quarter 2013 News Release available at www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/cewqtr_09262013.htm or the special notice regarding reconstructed data section of the 2013 CES Benchmark Article at www.bls.gov/ces/cesbmart13.pdf.
(4) With the 2015 benchmark, CES reconstructed the national employment series for CES series 65-624120 services for the elderly and persons with disabilities back to January 2000. CES previously reconstructed this series with the 2013 benchmark; however, between the 2013 and 2015 benchmark, a better source of information for the employment within NAICS 62412 for the state of California was found. The inclusion of the reconstructed series resulted in total nonfarm and total private employment that was 27,000 less than the originally published March 2015 estimate level. The difference between the benchmarked and originally published March 2015 estimate level is −199,000 or −0.1 percent. This table displays March 2015 data after accounting for the decrease of 27,000 from the reconstructed series. Similarly, for the education and health services supersector, this table displays March 2015 data after incorporating the reconstructed series.

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Note

Tables 2, 5, and 6 on this page contain clickable headers that sort the table by the clicked column.

Table 2 shows the nonfarm employment benchmarks for March 2016, not seasonally adjusted, by industry. The revision to the reconstructed total nonfarm employment is −81,000.

Seven supersectors saw negative revisions. The largest downward revision occurred in professional and business services, −125,000, or −0.6 percent. Within this supersector, the largest revision was in professional and technical services (−51,800, or −0.6 percent). The next largest downward revision occurred in trade, transportation, and utilities, −110,000, or −0.4 percent. This downward revision was driven by a large downward revision in retail trade (−118,200, or −0.8 percent). Education and health services was revised downward by −83,000, or −0.4 percent. This downward revision was driven by a large downward revision in health care (−120,600, or −0.8 percent). Mining and logging experienced the largest downward revision in percentage terms among supersectors with a revision of −22,000, or −3.2 percent, driven by a large downward revision in support activities for mining (−26,600, or −9.9 percent). Other services also experienced a downward revision of −12,000, or −0.2 percent. The two smallest downward revisions occurred in financial activities (−4,000, or 0.0 percent) and information (−2,000, or −0.1 percent).

The remaining four supersectors had upward revisions. The largest upward revision occurred in leisure and hospitality by an amount of 102,000, or 0.7 percent. Within this supersector, the largest revision was in accommodation and food service (101,600, or 0.8 percent). The next largest upward revision occurred in government, which experienced an upward revision of 70,000, or 0.3 percent. Manufacturing was revised upward 58,000, or 0.5 percent. Within this supersector, the largest revision was in food manufacturing (22,400, or 1.5 percent). Construction had an upward revision of 47,000, or 0.7 percent.

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Table 2. Nonfarm employment benchmarks for industries released with first preliminary estimates, March 2016 (in thousands)
CES Industry Code CES Industry Title Benchmark Estimate(1) Differences Absolute Differences
Amount Percent Amount Percent
00-000000 Total nonfarm 142,814 142,895 -81.0 -0.1 81.0 0.1
05-000000 Total private 120,262 120,413 -151.0 -0.1 151.0 0.1
06-000000 Goods-producing 19,371 19,288 83.0 0.4 83.0 0.4
07-000000 Service-providing 123,443 123,607 -164.0 -0.1 164.0 0.1
08-000000 Private service-providing 100,891 101,125 -234.0 -0.2 234.0 0.2
10-000000 Mining and logging 681 703 -22.0 -3.2 22.0 3.2
10-113300 Logging 50.4 49.1 1.3 2.6 1.3 2.6
10-210000 Mining 630.1 653.7 -23.6 -3.7 23.6 3.7
10-211000 Oil and gas extraction 181.8 176.2 5.6 3.1 5.6 3.1
10-212000 Mining, except oil and gas 178.5 181.1 -2.6 -1.5 2.6 1.5
10-212100 Coal mining 52.1 56.3 -4.2 -8.1 4.2 8.1
10-212200 Metal ore mining 38.8 38.2 0.6 1.5 0.6 1.5
10-212300 Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying 87.6 86.6 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.1
10-213000 Support activities for mining 269.8 296.4 -26.6 -9.9 26.6 9.9
20-000000 Construction 6,402 6,355 47.0 0.7 47.0 0.7
20-236000 Construction of buildings 1,440.4 1,415.6 24.8 1.7 24.8 1.7
20-236100 Residential building 696.3 689.5 6.8 1.0 6.8 1.0
20-236200 Nonresidential building 744.1 726.1 18.0 2.4 18.0 2.4
20-237000 Heavy and civil engineering construction 879.5 871.5 8.0 0.9 8.0 0.9
20-238000 Specialty trade contractors 4,081.6 4,068.1 13.5 0.3 13.5 0.3
20-238001 Residential specialty trade contractors 1,771.1 1,785.4 -14.3 -0.8 14.3 0.8
20-238002 Nonresidential specialty trade contractors 2,310.5 2,282.7 27.8 1.2 27.8 1.2
30-000000 Manufacturing 12,288 12,230 58.0 0.5 58.0 0.5
31-000000 Durable goods 7,710 7,680 30.0 0.4 30.0 0.4
31-321000 Wood products 385.6 376.9 8.7 2.3 8.7 2.3
31-327000 Nonmetallic mineral products 397.1 391.9 5.2 1.3 5.2 1.3
31-331000 Primary metals 379.8 377.5 2.3 0.6 2.3 0.6
31-332000 Fabricated metal products 1,425.4 1,428.1 -2.7 -0.2 2.7 0.2
31-333000 Machinery 1,086.8 1,090.5 -3.7 -0.3 3.7 0.3
31-334000 Computer and electronic products 1,050.3 1,040.8 9.5 0.9 9.5 0.9
31-334100 Computer and peripheral equipment 164.3 162.8 1.5 0.9 1.5 0.9
31-334200 Communications equipment 86.1 84.9 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.4
31-334400 Semiconductors and electronic components 368.6 362.5 6.1 1.7 6.1 1.7
31-334500 Electronic instruments 395.9 395.6 0.3 0.1 0.3 0.1
31-334600 Miscellaneous computer and electronic products 35.4 35.0 0.4 1.1 0.4 1.1
31-335000 Electrical equipment and appliances 383.3 383.6 -0.3 -0.1 0.3 0.1
31-336000 Transportation equipment 1,625.9 1,608.4 17.5 1.1 17.5 1.1
31-336001 Motor vehicles and parts 938.6 926.0 12.6 1.3 12.6 1.3
31-337000 Furniture and related products 388.7 388.0 0.7 0.2 0.7 0.2
31-339000 Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing 586.8 594.4 -7.6 -1.3 7.6 1.3
32-000000 Nondurable goods 4,578 4,550 28.0 0.6 28.0 0.6
32-311000 Food manufacturing 1,517.6 1,495.2 22.4 1.5 22.4 1.5
32-313000 Textile mills 115.0 114.3 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.6
32-314000 Textile product mills 115.4 116.5 -1.1 -1.0 1.1 1.0
32-315000 Apparel 132.6 133.7 -1.1 -0.8 1.1 0.8
32-322000 Paper and paper products 370.6 370.4 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1
32-323000 Printing and related support activities 448.5 444.4 4.1 0.9 4.1 0.9
32-324000 Petroleum and coal products 109.0 112.7 -3.7 -3.4 3.7 3.4
32-325000 Chemicals 809.9 817.6 -7.7 -1.0 7.7 1.0
32-326000 Plastics and rubber products 698.4 690.1 8.3 1.2 8.3 1.2
32-329000 Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing 260.9 255.5 5.4 2.1 5.4 2.1
40-000000 Trade, transportation, and utilities 26,855 26,965 -110.0 -0.4 110.0 0.4
41-420000 Wholesale trade 5,828.4 5,895.0 -66.6 -1.1 66.6 1.1
41-423000 Durable goods 2,918.4 2,940.3 -21.9 -0.8 21.9 0.8
41-424000 Nondurable goods 2,017.3 2,043.7 -26.4 -1.3 26.4 1.3
41-425000 Electronic markets and agents and brokers 892.7 911.0 -18.3 -2.0 18.3 2.0
42-000000 Retail trade 15,570.5 15,688.7 -118.2 -0.8 118.2 0.8
42-441000 Motor vehicle and parts dealers 1,962.4 1,978.9 -16.5 -0.8 16.5 0.8
42-441100 Automobile dealers 1,269.8 1,277.6 -7.8 -0.6 7.8 0.6
42-441200 Other motor vehicle dealers 145.9 146.3 -0.4 -0.3 0.4 0.3
42-441300 Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores 546.7 555.0 -8.3 -1.5 8.3 1.5
42-442000 Furniture and home furnishings stores 464.7 472.2 -7.5 -1.6 7.5 1.6
42-443000 Electronics and appliance stores 520.7 522.9 -2.2 -0.4 2.2 0.4
42-444000 Building material and garden supply stores 1,265.8 1,278.0 -12.2 -1.0 12.2 1.0
42-445000 Food and beverage stores 3,049.2 3,061.6 -12.4 -0.4 12.4 0.4
42-446000 Health and personal care stores 1,038.5 1,035.7 2.8 0.3 2.8 0.3
42-447000 Gasoline stations 909.5 908.8 0.7 0.1 0.7 0.1
42-448000 Clothing and clothing accessories stores 1,304.5 1,333.8 -29.3 -2.2 29.3 2.2
42-451000 Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores 610.1 616.7 -6.6 -1.1 6.6 1.1
42-452000 General merchandise stores 3,119.2 3,147.9 -28.7 -0.9 28.7 0.9
42-452100 Department stores 1,280.8 1,289.2 -8.4 -0.7 8.4 0.7
42-452900 Other general merchandise stores 1,838.4 1,858.7 -20.3 -1.1 20.3 1.1
42-453000 Miscellaneous store retailers 804.1 811.5 -7.4 -0.9 7.4 0.9
42-454000 Nonstore retailers 521.8 520.7 1.1 0.2 1.1 0.2
43-000000 Transportation and warehousing 4,901.5 4,818.0 83.5 1.7 83.5 1.7
43-481000 Air transportation 469.6 462.5 7.1 1.5 7.1 1.5
43-482000 Rail transportation 215.8 218.8 -3.0 -1.4 3.0 1.4
43-483000 Water transportation 63.9 60.2 3.7 5.8 3.7 5.8
43-484000 Truck transportation 1,424.0 1,434.2 -10.2 -0.7 10.2 0.7
43-485000 Transit and ground passenger transportation 497.4 490.6 6.8 1.4 6.8 1.4
43-486000 Pipeline transportation 49.7 48.6 1.1 2.2 1.1 2.2
43-487000 Scenic and sightseeing transportation 26.3 22.4 3.9 14.8 3.9 14.8
43-488000 Support activities for transportation 657.1 649.4 7.7 1.2 7.7 1.2
43-492000 Couriers and messengers 608.4 593.9 14.5 2.4 14.5 2.4
43-493000 Warehousing and storage 889.3 837.4 51.9 5.8 51.9 5.8
44-220000 Utilities 554.2 562.9 -8.7 -1.6 8.7 1.6
50-000000 Information 2,776 2,778 -2.0 -0.1 2.0 0.1
50-511000 Publishing industries, except Internet 726.3 722.7 3.6 0.5 3.6 0.5
50-512000 Motion picture and sound recording industries 422.3 421.3 1.0 0.2 1.0 0.2
50-515000 Broadcasting, except Internet 272.1 280.8 -8.7 -3.2 8.7 3.2
50-517000 Telecommunications 803.3 800.3 3.0 0.4 3.0 0.4
50-518000 Data processing, hosting and related services 297.1 297.3 -0.2 -0.1 0.2 0.1
50-519000 Other information services 255.0 255.7 -0.7 -0.3 0.7 0.3
55-000000 Financial activities 8,181 8,185 -4.0 0.0 4.0 0.0
55-520000 Finance and insurance 6,095.8 6,105.8 -10.0 -0.2 10.0 0.2
55-521000 Monetary authorities - central bank 18.4 17.8 0.6 3.3 0.6 3.3
55-522000 Credit intermediation and related activities 2,592.7 2,584.2 8.5 0.3 8.5 0.3
55-522100 Depository credit intermediation 1,693.2 1,682.6 10.6 0.6 10.6 0.6
55-522110 Commercial banking 1,307.0 1,267.5 39.5 3.0 39.5 3.0
55-522200 Nondepository credit intermediation 605.5 601.8 3.7 0.6 3.7 0.6
55-522300 Activities related to credit intermediation 294.0 299.8 -5.8 -2.0 5.8 2.0
55-523000 Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts 919.1 918.3 0.8 0.1 0.8 0.1
55-524000 Insurance carriers and related activities 2,565.6 2,585.5 -19.9 -0.8 19.9 0.8
55-530000 Real estate and rental and leasing 2,085.0 2,078.7 6.3 0.3 6.3 0.3
55-531000 Real estate 1,523.7 1,527.9 -4.2 -0.3 4.2 0.3
55-532000 Rental and leasing services 538.0 527.6 10.4 1.9 10.4 1.9
55-533000 Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets 23.3 23.2 0.1 0.4 0.1 0.4
60-000000 Professional and business services 19,704 19,829 -125.0 -0.6 125.0 0.6
60-540000 Professional and technical services 8,815.2 8,867.0 -51.8 -0.6 51.8 0.6
60-541100 Legal services 1,115.6 1,120.1 -4.5 -0.4 4.5 0.4
60-541200 Accounting and bookkeeping services 1,083.2 1,126.0 -42.8 -4.0 42.8 4.0
60-541300 Architectural and engineering services 1,383.3 1,414.4 -31.1 -2.2 31.1 2.2
60-541400 Specialized design services 134.5 137.4 -2.9 -2.2 2.9 2.2
60-541500 Computer systems design and related services 1,943.3 1,952.8 -9.5 -0.5 9.5 0.5
60-541600 Management and technical consulting services 1,329.5 1,299.3 30.2 2.3 30.2 2.3
60-541700 Scientific research and development services 670.3 660.9 9.4 1.4 9.4 1.4
60-541800 Advertising and related services 483.0 488.7 -5.7 -1.2 5.7 1.2
60-541900 Other professional and technical services 672.5 667.4 5.1 0.8 5.1 0.8
60-550000 Management of companies and enterprises 2,221.4 2,252.2 -30.8 -1.4 30.8 1.4
60-560000 Administrative and waste services 8,666.9 8,710.2 -43.3 -0.5 43.3 0.5
60-561000 Administrative and support services 8,273.5 8,313.5 -40.0 -0.5 40.0 0.5
60-561100 Office administrative services 485.7 483.9 1.8 0.4 1.8 0.4
60-561200 Facilities support services 144.0 146.6 -2.6 -1.8 2.6 1.8
60-561300 Employment services 3,419.3 3,461.5 -42.2 -1.2 42.2 1.2
60-561320 Temporary help services 2,787.5 2,802.6 -15.1 -0.5 15.1 0.5
60-561400 Business support services 899.0 903.0 -4.0 -0.4 4.0 0.4
60-561500 Travel arrangement and reservation services 214.6 202.0 12.6 5.9 12.6 5.9
60-561600 Investigation and security services 883.7 881.2 2.5 0.3 2.5 0.3
60-561700 Services to buildings and dwellings 1,919.4 1,917.5 1.9 0.1 1.9 0.1
60-561900 Other support services 307.8 317.8 -10.0 -3.2 10.0 3.2
60-562000 Waste management and remediation services 393.4 396.7 -3.3 -0.8 3.3 0.8
65-000000 Education and health services 22,590 22,673 -83.0 -0.4 83.0 0.4
65-610000 Educational services 3,697.1 3,676.0 21.1 0.6 21.1 0.6
65-620000 Health care and social assistance 18,892.8 18,997.0 -104.2 -0.6 104.2 0.6
65-620001 Health care 15,263.5 15,384.1 -120.6 -0.8 120.6 0.8
65-621000 Ambulatory health care services 6,988.7 7,041.1 -52.4 -0.7 52.4 0.7
65-621100 Offices of physicians 2,502.5 2,531.1 -28.6 -1.1 28.6 1.1
65-621200 Offices of dentists 912.2 924.5 -12.3 -1.3 12.3 1.3
65-621300 Offices of other health practitioners 837.2 839.6 -2.4 -0.3 2.4 0.3
65-621400 Outpatient care centers 840.6 820.3 20.3 2.4 20.3 2.4
65-621500 Medical and diagnostic laboratories 263.3 259.0 4.3 1.6 4.3 1.6
65-621600 Home health care services 1,345.2 1,374.1 -28.9 -2.1 28.9 2.1
65-621900 Other ambulatory health care services 287.7 292.5 -4.8 -1.7 4.8 1.7
65-622000 Hospitals 4,979.9 5,036.0 -56.1 -1.1 56.1 1.1
65-623000 Nursing and residential care facilities 3,294.9 3,307.0 -12.1 -0.4 12.1 0.4
65-623100 Nursing care facilities 1,632.4 1,645.9 -13.5 -0.8 13.5 0.8
65-623200 Residential mental health facilities 613.2 612.5 0.7 0.1 0.7 0.1
65-623300 Community care facilities for the elderly 886.9 886.7 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.0
65-623900 Other residential care facilities 162.4 161.9 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.3
65-624000 Social assistance 3,629.3 3,612.9 16.4 0.5 16.4 0.5
65-624100 Individual and family services 2,208.0 2,204.1 3.9 0.2 3.9 0.2
65-624200 Emergency and other relief services 162.4 158.1 4.3 2.6 4.3 2.6
65-624300 Vocational rehabilitation services 336.5 333.0 3.5 1.0 3.5 1.0
65-624400 Child day care services 922.4 917.7 4.7 0.5 4.7 0.5
70-000000 Leisure and hospitality 15,143 15,041 102.0 0.7 102.0 0.7
70-710000 Arts, entertainment, and recreation 2,067.8 2,066.7 1.1 0.1 1.1 0.1
70-711000 Performing arts and spectator sports 438.9 454.4 -15.5 -3.5 15.5 3.5
70-712000 Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions 148.6 145.8 2.8 1.9 2.8 1.9
70-713000 Amusements, gambling, and recreation 1,480.3 1,466.5 13.8 0.9 13.8 0.9
70-720000 Accommodation and food services 13,075.4 12,973.8 101.6 0.8 101.6 0.8
70-721000 Accommodation 1,878.6 1,861.5 17.1 0.9 17.1 0.9
70-722000 Food services and drinking places 11,196.8 11,112.3 84.5 0.8 84.5 0.8
80-000000 Other services 5,642 5,654 -12.0 -0.2 12.0 0.2
80-811000 Repair and maintenance 1,291.8 1,289.7 2.1 0.2 2.1 0.2
80-812000 Personal and laundry services 1,424.2 1,415.1 9.1 0.6 9.1 0.6
80-813000 Membership associations and organizations 2,925.8 2,948.8 -23.0 -0.8 23.0 0.8
90-000000 Government 22,552 22,482 70.0 0.3 70.0 0.3
90-910000 Federal 2,767.0 2,758.0 9.0 0.3 9.0 0.3
90-911000 Federal, except U.S. Postal Service 2,162.7 2,153.9 8.8 0.4 8.8 0.4
90-919120 U.S. Postal Service 604.6 604.5 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0
90-920000 State government 5,247.0 5,234.0 13.0 0.2 13.0 0.2
90-921611 State government education 2,573.0 2,565.7 7.3 0.3 7.3 0.3
90-922000 State government, excluding education 2,673.6 2,667.9 5.7 0.2 5.7 0.2
90-930000 Local government 14,538.0 14,490.0 48.0 0.3 48.0 0.3
90-931611 Local government education 8,243.6 8,208.1 35.5 0.4 35.5 0.4
90-932000 Local government, excluding education 6,294.6 6,281.5 13.1 0.2 13.1 0.2
Footnotes

(1) During processing for the 2016 benchmark it was found that several establishments originally coded in CES industry 65-621111 (offices of physicians, except mental health) should have been coded in CES industry 65-621491 (HMO medical centers) back to January 1990. Additionally with the 2016 benchmark, CES reconstructed the CES national employment series for 90-921611 (state government education) and 90-931611 (local government education) back to April 2014 to address an ownership reclassification of some colleges and universities. For more information, see the Reconstruction section in the 2016 Benchmark Article.

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To Table of Figures


Revisions in the postbenchmark period

From April 2016 to December 2016, also known as the postbenchmark period, estimates were recalculated for each month based on new benchmark levels and new net birth/death factors. Net birth/death factors were revised to incorporate information from the most recent year of universe employment counts. Table 3 shows the net birth/death model values for the supersectors over the postbenchmark period. From April 2016 to December 2016, the net birth/death model cumulatively added 1,021,000, compared with 881,000 in the previously published April 2016 to December 2016 employment estimates.

Table 3. Net birth/death estimates by industry supersector, April to December 2016 (in thousands)
Supersector Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Cumulative
Total

Mining and logging

-1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 3

Construction

35 42 23 12 12 5 16 -9 -16 120

Manufacturing

1 8 4 -1 4 2 4 3 1 26

Trade, transportation, and utilities

4 25 8 8 16 7 30 7 4 109

Wholesale trade

-4 5 -1 -1 3 -2 7 3 1 11

Retail trade

5 15 6 8 8 5 18 4 2 71

Transportation and warehousing

3 5 3 1 5 4 5 0 1 27

Utilities

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Information

2 5 -2 4 5 -4 7 4 -1 20

Financial activities

1 7 0 4 5 -4 20 2 9 44

Professional and business services

91 24 -2 40 22 -23 97 8 -13 244

Education and health services

26 17 -19 20 20 -2 59 11 -7 125

Leisure and hospitality

84 93 80 68 24 -36 -2 -21 8 298

Other services

12 9 6 -2 5 -3 5 2 -2 32

Monthly amount contributed

255 231 99 154 113 -58 237 7 -17 1,021

To Table of Figures


Table 4 presents revised total nonfarm employment data on a seasonally adjusted basis for January 2016 through December 2016. The revised data for April 2016 forward incorporate the effect of applying the rate of change measured by the sample to the new benchmark level, as well as updated net birth/death model adjustments and new seasonal adjustment factors. Revisions to November and December also reflect incorporation of additional sample receipts.

Table 4. Differences in seasonally adjusted levels and over-the-month changes, total nonfarm employment, January – December 2016 (in thousands)
2016 Levels Over-the-month changes
As Previously Published As Revised Difference As Previously Published As Revised Difference

January

143,314 143,211 -103 168 126 -42

February

143,547 143,448 -99 233 237 4

March

143,733 143,673 -60 186 225 39

April

143,877 143,826 -51 144 153 9

May

143,901 143,869 -32 24 43 19

June

144,172 144,166 -6 271 297 26

July

144,424 144,457 33 252 291 39

August

144,600 144,633 33 176 176 0

September

144,808 144,882 74 208 249 41

October

144,943 145,006 63 135 124 -11

November

145,147 145,170 23 204 164 -40

December(p)

145,303 145,327 24 156 157 1

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary.

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Changes to the CES published series

With the release of the January 2017 first preliminary estimates on February 3, 2017, CES incorporated series changes related to annual sample adequacy and disclosure review.

Series changes

All CES series are evaluated annually for sample size, coverage, and response rates. The following changes resulted from a re-evaluation of the sample and universe coverage for CES industries, which are based on North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) industries. Some small industries no longer have sufficient sample to be estimated and published separately and were combined with other similar industries for estimation and publication purposes. The following information is also available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesnewseries.htm.

A list of currently published CES series is available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesseriespub.htm.

Some series have new CES industry codes or titles as a result of the series changes (Exhibit 1). These CES industry code or title changes were applied to all data types published for the designated series. Historical data for these series with new CES industry codes or CES industry titles are impacted as noted on the remainder of this page; historical data are available under the new CES industry codes or CES industry titles.

Exhibit 1. Series with CES industry code or title Changes
NAICS Code Previous New
CES Industry Code CES Industry Title CES Industry Code CES Industry Title

335313,4

31-335314 Relays and industrial controls 31-335314 Switchgears, switchboard apparatus, relays, and industrial controls

3122,60

32-329200 Tobacco and tobacco products 32-329900 Other miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

51114,9

50-511140 Directory and mailing list publishers 50-511190 Directory, mailing list, and other publishers

To Table of Figures


Exhibit 2 through Exhibit 7 show the new CES industry codes and titles, not the previous CES industry codes and titles, as noted in Exhibit 1.

Only directly estimated data types1 are included in the exhibits:

  • All Employees (AE)
  • AE Average Weekly Hours (AE AWH)
  • AE Average Hourly Earnings (AE AHE)
  • AE Average Weekly Overtime Hours (AE AWOH)
  • Women Employees (WE)
  • Production Employees (PE)
  • PE Average Weekly Hours (PE AWH)
  • PE Average Hourly Earnings (PE AHE)
  • PE Average Weekly Overtime Hours (PE AWOH)

The directly estimated data types listed except for AE are collectively called non-AE data types. In order to more easily identify affected series, since AE series are published at a more detailed industry level than non-AE series, series changes are shown for AE and non-AE data types. The non-AE tables cover all directly estimated non-AE data types.

The first three exhibits reference the AE data type and the second three exhibits reference all non-AE data types. The three exhibits in each group display the discontinued, collapsed, and new series. Discontinued series exhibits (Exhibit 2 and Exhibit 5) display series for which the data types noted are no longer published. Collapsed series exhibits (Exhibit 3 and Exhibit 6) display series for which the data types noted are no longer published because the industry no longer has sufficient sample to be estimated and published separately. Affected industries have been combined with other similar industries for estimation and publication purposes. Historical data for these series were reconstructed to provide consistent time series. New series exhibits (Exhibit 4 and Exhibit 7) display series for which the data types noted are now published.

AE exhibits

Exhibit 2. Discontinued AE series

There are no discontinued AE series.

To Table of Figures


Exhibit 3. Collapsed AE series
NAICS Code CES Industry Code CES Industry Title Collapsed into CES Industry (CES Industry Code)

335313

31-335313 Switchgear and switchboard apparatus Collapsed into switchgears, switchboard apparatus, relays, and industrial controls (31-335314)

316

32-329300 Leather and allied products Collapsed into other miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing (32-329900)

51114

50-511140 Directory and mailing list publishers Collapsed into directory, mailing list, and other publishers (50-511190)

To Table of Figures


Exhibit 4. New AE series

There are no new AE series published.

To Table of Figures

Non-AE exhibits

Exhibit 5. Discontinued Non-AE series
NAICS Code CES Industry Code CES Industry Title Discontinued From Publication Next Highest Published Industry Title (CES Industry Code)

3314

31-331400 Other nonferrous metal production AE AWOH Primary metals (31-331000)

33391

31-333910 Pumps and compressors AE AWH, AE AHE Other general purpose machinery (31-333900)

33399

31-333990 All other general purpose machinery AE AWH, AE AHE Other general purpose machinery (31-333900)

33422

31-334220 Broadcast and wireless communications equipment AE AWH, AE AHE Communications equipment (31-334200)

33611

31-336110 Automobiles and light trucks AE AWH, AE AHE Motor vehicles (31-336100)

33612

31-336120 Heavy duty trucks AE AWH, AE AHE Motor vehicles (31-336100)

33635

31-336350 Motor vehicle power train components AE AWH, AE AHE, AE AWOH Motor vehicle parts (31-336300)

3372

31-337200 Office furniture and fixtures WE Furniture and related products (31-337000)

337215

31-337215 Showcases, partitions, shelving, and lockers AE AWOH Furniture and related products (31-337000)

3379

31-337900 Other furniture-related products WE Furniture and related products (31-337000)

3117

32-311700 Seafood product preparation and packaging PE AWOH Food manufacturing (32-311000)

3141

32-314100 Textile furnishings mills AE AWH, AE AHE, AE AWOH Textile product mills (32-314000)

3149

32-314900 Other textile product mills AE AWH, AE AHE, AE AWOH Textile product mills (32-314000)

4542

42-454200 Vending machine operators AE AWH, AE AHE Nonstore retailers (42-454000)

4543

42-454300 Direct selling establishments AE AWH, AE AHE Nonstore retailers (42-454000)

45431

42-454310 Fuel dealers AE AWH, AE AHE Nonstore retailers (42-454000)

45439

42-454390 Other direct selling establishments AE AWH, AE AHE Nonstore retailers (42-454000)

To Table of Figures


Exhibit 6. Collapsed Non-AE series

There are no collapsed non-AE series.

To Table of Figures


Exhibit 7. New Non-AE series

There are no new non-AE series published.

To Table of Figures


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Reconstructions

Several series were reconstructed as part of the 2016 CES benchmark. Exhibit 8 outlines the CES industries, data types, and timespans that were impacted by the reconstructions.

Exhibit 8. CES detailed series involved in data reconstructions
CES Industry Code CES Industry TitleData Type(s) Involved(1) Earliest Month Impacted

65-621111

Offices of physicians, except mental health AE, AE AWH, AE AHE, PE, PE AWH, PE AHE, WE January 1990

65-621491

HMO medical centers AE January 1990

90-921611

State government education AE, WE April 2014

90-931611

Local government education AE, WE April 2014

Footnotes
(1) For definitions of directly estimated data types, see the Changes to CES published series section.

To Table of Figures


HMO medical centers and offices of physicians, except mental health reconstructed from January 1990 forward

During processing for the 2016 benchmark, a change to NAICS codes for reports in health care services affecting two industries was discovered. This change was determined to be non-economic and affected the entire series going back to 1990.

Several establishments originally coded in CES industry 65-621111 (offices of physicians, except mental health) should have been coded in CES industry 65-621491 (HMO medical centers). A ratio of the employment in the reclassified establishments to the employment originally in 65-621111 was calculated for March 2016. This March 2016 ratio was applied back to January 1990 to each month’s employment level for 65-621111. The resulting employment amounts were taken out of 65-621111 and put in industry 65-621491. This change affected all employees (AE) for 65-621491 and AE, production and nonsupervisory employment (PE), and women’s employment (WE) for 65-621111. At higher levels of aggregation, average weekly hours and average hourly earnings for both AE and PE (AE AWH, AE AHE, PE AWH, and PE AHE) were affected for 65-621111. Aggregate levels of AE, WE, and PE were unaffected at the 3-digit level. All industries impacted by this reconstruction are included in Exhibit 9 below.

This series was benchmarked according to the usual methodology after the reconstruction. The reconstruction and subsequent benchmark resulted in revisions to seasonally and not seasonally adjusted data from January 1990 forward. Due to the time span of the reconstruction, the entire series was re-seasonally adjusted back to 1990. More information about CES benchmarking methods is available in the CES Technical Notes at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm#section7b. More information about seasonal adjustment of CES series is available in the CES Technical Notes at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm#section6e.

Exhibit 9. Industries impacted by CES reconstruction of HMO medical centers and offices of physicians, except mental health, January 1990 forward
CES Industry Code CES Industry Title

65-621100

Offices of physicians

65-621111

Offices of physicians, except mental health

65-621400

Outpatient care centers

65-621490

Outpatient care centers, except mental health

65-621491

HMO medical centers

To Table of Figures


State and local government education reconstructed from April 2014 forward

A reclassification of some colleges and universities from state to local ownership caused a shift in employment from CES series 90-921611 (state government education) into 90-931611 (local government education). Prior to benchmarking, sample-based links2 for AE were constructed from original matched sample data after accounting for the ownership change. These sample-based links were applied to AE from July 2014 to the March 2015 benchmark, after which the series were wedged back to April of 2014. The months following March 2015 were re-projected forward using the newly calculated sample links for AE. The previous level of employment was maintained for government by calculating the differences in employment between the summed state, federal, and local government employment and the previous aggregate government employment. Differences were raked proportionally into 90-921611 and 90-931611.

New ratios of WE to AE employment were calculated from the reclassified sample data. The new WE ratios were applied to the reconstructed AE series from April 2014 forward to create a reconstructed WE series.

The reconstruction resulted in state government education AE that was 35,700 less than the originally published March 2016 estimate level and local government education AE that was 34,800 more than the originally published March 2016 estimate level. All industries impacted by this reconstruction are included in Exhibit 10 below.

The series were benchmarked according to the usual methodology after the reconstruction. The reconstruction and subsequent benchmark resulted in revisions to the not seasonally adjusted data from April 2014 forward. Seasonally adjusted series are subject to revisions back 5 years. More information about CES benchmarking methods is available in the CES Technical Notes at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm#section7b. More information about seasonal adjustment of CES series is available in the CES Technical Notes at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm#section6e.

Exhibit 10. Industries impacted by CES reconstruction of state and local government education, April 2014 forward
CES Industry Code CES Industry Title

90-920000

State government

90-921611

State government education

90-930000

Local government

90-931611

Local government education

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Why benchmarks differ from estimates

A benchmark revision is the difference between the benchmark employment level for a given March and its corresponding sample-based estimate. The overall accuracy of the establishment survey is usually gauged by the size of this difference. The benchmark revision often is regarded as a proxy for total survey error, but this does not take into account error in the universe data or infrequent events such as historical reconstructions. The employment counts obtained from quarterly UI tax forms are administrative data that reflect employer record-keeping practices and differing state laws and procedures. The benchmark revision can be more precisely interpreted as the difference between two independently derived employment counts, each subject to its own error sources.

Like all sample surveys, the establishment survey is susceptible to two sources of error: sampling error and nonsampling error. Sampling error is present any time a sample is used to make inferences about a population. The magnitude of the sampling error, or variance, relates directly to sample size and the percentage of the universe covered by that sample. The CES monthly survey captures slightly under one-third of the universe, exceptionally high by usual sampling standards. This coverage ensures a small sampling error at the total nonfarm employment level. More information on the reliability of CES estimates is available in the Reliability section of the CES Technical Notes available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm#section1c.

Both the universe counts and the establishment survey estimates are subject to nonsampling errors common to all surveys – measurement, response, and processing errors. The error structures for both the CES monthly survey and the UI universe are complex. Still, the two programs generally produce consistent total employment figures, each validating the other.

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Benchmark revision effects for other data types

The routine benchmarking process results in revisions to the series for employment of production and nonsupervisory employees (PE) and employment of women employees (WE). There are no benchmark employment levels for these series; they are revised by preserving ratios of employment for the particular data type to employment of all employees (AE) prior to benchmarking, and then applying these ratios to the revised employment of all employees. These figures are calculated at the basic cell level and then aggregated to produce the summary estimates.

Average weekly hours, average hourly earnings, and in manufacturing industries, average weekly overtime hours are not benchmarked; they are estimated solely from reports supplied by survey respondents at the basic estimating cell level.

The aggregate industry levels of the hours and earnings series are derived as a weighted average. The employment of all employees estimates or the employment of production and nonsupervisory employees estimates for the basic cells essentially act as weights for their respective hours and earnings estimates for broader industry groupings. Adjustments of the employment of all employees estimates to new benchmarks may alter the weights used for both AE and PE hours and earnings, which, in turn, may change the estimates for both AE and PE hours and earnings at higher levels of aggregation.

Generally, new employment benchmarks have little effect on hours and earnings estimates for major industry groupings. To influence the hours and earnings estimates of a broader industry group, employment revisions have to be relatively large and must affect industries that have hours or earnings averages that are substantially different from those of other industries in their broader group. Table 5 and Table 6 provide information on the levels of specific hours and earnings series resulting from the March 2016 benchmark. At the total private level, there was no change in average weekly hours estimates for both AE and PE from the previously published level. Total private average hourly earnings increased by one cent for AE from the previously published level and did not change for PE.

Table 5. Effect of March 2016 benchmark revisions to AE AWH and AE AHE estimates, selected industries
CES Industry Code CES Industry Title Average Weekly Hours Average Hourly Earnings ($)

Estimated(1)

Revised

Difference

Estimated(1)

Revised

Difference
05-000000 Total private 34.2 34.2 0.0 25.48 25.49 0.01
06-000000 Goods-producing 39.9 39.9 0.0 26.70 26.69 -0.01
08-000000 Private service-providing 33.1 33.1 0.0 25.20 25.21 0.01
10-000000 Mining and logging 42.1 42.1 0.0 31.97 32.18 0.21
20-000000 Construction 38.3 38.3 0.0 27.94 27.95 0.01
30-000000 Manufacturing 40.6 40.6 0.0 25.78 25.76 -0.02
31-000000 Durable goods 41.1 41.1 0.0 27.08 27.09 0.01
31-321000 Wood products 40.2 40.2 0.0 19.17 19.14 -0.03
31-327000 Nonmetallic mineral products 40.3 40.3 0.0 23.67 23.69 0.02
31-331000 Primary metals 42.6 42.6 0.0 25.41 25.44 0.03
31-332000 Fabricated metal products 40.9 40.9 0.0 23.78 23.77 -0.01
31-333000 Machinery 40.7 40.7 0.0 27.47 27.46 -0.01
31-334000 Computer and electronic products 40.2 40.2 0.0 34.71 34.71 0.00
31-335000 Electrical equipment and appliances 41.3 41.3 0.0 25.62 25.62 0.00
31-336000 Transportation equipment 43.3 43.3 0.0 30.39 30.39 0.00
31-336001 Motor vehicles and parts 44.2 44.1 -0.1 25.31 25.25 -0.06
31-337000 Furniture and related products 39.3 39.3 0.0 20.31 20.35 0.04
31-339000 Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing 39.4 39.4 0.0 25.07 25.06 -0.01
32-000000 Nondurable goods 39.7 39.7 0.0 23.50 23.45 -0.05
32-311000 Food manufacturing 39.8 39.8 0.0 19.81 19.85 0.04
32-313000 Textile mills 41.7 41.7 0.0 19.49 19.49 0.00
32-314000 Textile product mills 38 38.1 0.1 16.87 16.84 -0.03
32-315000 Apparel 36.6 36.6 0.0 17.90 17.88 -0.02
32-322000 Paper and paper products 40.6 40.6 0.0 26.79 26.78 -0.01
32-323000 Printing and related support activities 37.9 37.9 0.0 22.75 22.75 0.00
32-324000 Petroleum and coal products 42.7 42.6 -0.1 41.82 41.54 -0.28
32-325000 Chemicals 40.7 40.7 0.0 30.58 30.58 0.00
32-326000 Plastics and rubber products 41.1 41.1 0.0 21.15 21.15 0.00
32-329000 Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing 34.4 34.4 0.0 23.56 23.56 0.00
40-000000 Trade, transportation, and utilities 34 34 0.0 22.21 22.21 0.00
41-420000 Wholesale trade 38.5 38.5 0.0 29.17 29.17 0.00
42-000000 Retail trade 30.6 30.7 0.1 17.81 17.83 0.02
43-000000 Transportation and warehousing 38.6 38.6 0.0 23.06 23.01 -0.05
44-220000 Utilities 41.8 41.8 0.0 38.11 38.16 0.05
50-000000 Information 35.6 35.6 0.0 36.00 36.02 0.02
55-000000 Financial activities 37.3 37.3 0.0 32.13 32.10 -0.03
60-000000 Professional and business services 35.8 35.8 0.0 30.61 30.61 0.00
65-000000 Education and health services 32.7 32.6 -0.1 25.54 25.61 0.07
70-000000 Leisure and hospitality 26 26 0.0 14.74 14.72 -0.02
80-000000 Other services 31.7 31.7 0.0 22.84 23.01 0.17

Footnotes

(1) During processing for the 2016 benchmark, several establishments originally coded in CES industry 65-621111 (offices of physicians, except mental health) were corrected to be coded in CES industry 65-621491 (HMO medical centers). Estimates for these industries were adjusted back to 1990 to account for this change. All employees (AE) for 65-621491 and AE; women employees (WE); production employees (PE); and average weekly hours, average hourly earnings, and average weekly earnings for both AE and PE (AE AWH, PE AWH, AE AHE, PE AHE, AE AWE, PE AWE) were affected for 65-621111. At aggregate levels AE, PE, and WE were not affected, although there were changes to hours and earnings estimates for both AE and PE. For more information, see the Reconstruction section in the 2016 Benchmark Article.

To Table of Figures


Table 6. Effect of March 2016 benchmark revisions to PE AWH and PE AHE estimates, selected industries
CES Industry Code CES Industry Title Average Weekly Hours Average Hourly Earnings ($)

Estimated(1)

Revised

Difference

Estimated(1)

Revised

Difference
05-000000 Total private 33.4 33.4 0.0 21.42 21.42 0.00
06-000000 Goods-producing 40.7 40.7 0.0 22.29 22.27 -0.02
08-000000 Private service-providing 32.2 32.2 0.0 21.24 21.25 0.01
10-000000 Mining and logging 44 44 0.0 26.92 26.96 0.04
20-000000 Construction 38.7 38.8 0.1 25.62 25.62 0.00
30-000000 Manufacturing 41.6 41.6 0.0 20.29 20.27 -0.02
31-000000 Durable goods 42.1 42.1 0.0 21.34 21.34 0.00
31-321000 Wood products 41.2 41.2 0.0 16.66 16.62 -0.04
31-327000 Nonmetallic mineral products 40.9 41 0.1 20.00 20.03 0.03
31-331000 Primary metals 43.2 43.2 0.0 22.86 22.93 0.07
31-332000 Fabricated metal products 41.8 41.8 0.0 19.51 19.51 0.00
31-333000 Machinery 41.7 41.7 0.0 21.69 21.68 -0.01
31-334000 Computer and electronic products 41.2 41.2 0.0 23.92 23.92 0.00
31-335000 Electrical equipment and appliances 42.8 42.8 0.0 19.12 19.12 0.00
31-336000 Transportation equipment 44.1 44.1 0.0 25.07 25.05 -0.02
31-336001 Motor vehicles and parts 44.8 44.8 0.0 21.56 21.51 -0.05
31-337000 Furniture and related products 39.9 40 0.1 16.49 16.50 0.01
31-339000 Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing 40.7 40.7 0.0 18.33 18.33 0.00
32-000000 Nondurable goods 40.9 40.9 0.0 18.56 18.51 -0.05
32-311000 Food manufacturing 40.8 40.8 0.0 16.27 16.28 0.01
32-313000 Textile mills 40.9 40.9 0.0 15.85 15.85 0.00
32-314000 Textile product mills 37.7 37.7 0.0 13.49 13.49 0.00
32-315000 Apparel 36.9 36.9 0.0 14.01 14.02 0.01
32-322000 Paper and paper products 42 42 0.0 21.72 21.69 -0.03
32-323000 Printing and related support activities 39.4 39.4 0.0 18.58 18.58 0.00
32-324000 Petroleum and coal products 45.2 45 -0.2 38.54 38.17 -0.37
32-325000 Chemicals 41.8 41.8 0.0 21.94 21.94 0.00
32-326000 Plastics and rubber products 42 42 0.0 17.05 17.05 0.00
32-329000 Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing 37.5 37.5 0.0 19.71 19.71 0.00
40-000000 Trade, transportation, and utilities 33.1 33.2 0.1 18.94 18.94 0.00
41-420000 Wholesale trade 38.2 38.2 0.0 23.94 23.94 0.00
42-000000 Retail trade 29.3 29.3 0.0 15.04 15.06 0.02
43-000000 Transportation and warehousing 38.6 38.6 0.0 20.95 20.88 -0.07
44-220000 Utilities 41.9 41.9 0.0 34.70 34.77 0.07
50-000000 Information 35.1 35.1 0.0 29.52 29.52 0.00
55-000000 Financial activities 36.7 36.7 0.0 26.11 26.08 -0.03
60-000000 Professional and business services 35.3 35.3 0.0 25.25 25.25 0.00
65-000000 Education and health services 32 32 0.0 22.36 22.41 0.05
70-000000 Leisure and hospitality 24.8 24.8 0.0 12.79 12.77 -0.02
80-000000 Other services 30.6 30.6 0.0 19.24 19.38 0.14

Footnotes

(1) During processing for the 2016 benchmark, several establishments originally coded in CES industry 65-621111 (offices of physicians, except mental health) were corrected to be coded in CES industry 65-621491 (HMO medical centers). Estimates for these industries were adjusted back to 1990 to account for this change. All employees (AE) for 65-621491 and AE; women employees (WE); production employees (PE); and average weekly hours, average hourly earnings, and average weekly earnings for both AE and PE (AE AWH, PE AWH, AE AHE, PE AHE, AE AWE, PE AWE) were affected for 65-621111. At aggregate levels AE, PE, and WE were not affected, although there were changes to hours and earnings estimates for both AE and PE. For more information, see the Reconstruction section in the 2016 Benchmark Article.

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Methods

Benchmark sources and procedures

Establishment survey benchmarking is done on an annual basis to a population derived primarily from the administrative file of employees covered by UI. All employers covered by UI laws are required to report employment and wage information to the appropriate Labor Market Information (LMI) agency four times per year. Approximately 97 percent of total nonfarm employment within the scope of the establishment survey is covered by UI. A benchmark for the remaining 3 percent is constructed from alternate sources, primarily records from the Railroad Retirement Board (RRB), County Business Patterns (CBP), and Annual Survey of Public Employment and Payroll (ASPEP). This 3 percent is collectively referred to as noncovered employment. Noncovered employment data from these sources are available only on a lagged basis. More information on calculating noncovered employment in the CES program is available in the CES Technical Notes at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm#NCE.

The time required to complete the benchmark revision process—from the full collection of the UI population data to publication of the revised industry estimates—is about ten months. The benchmark adjustment procedure replaces the March sample-based employment estimates with UI-based population counts for March. The benchmark therefore determines the final employment levels, while sample movements capture month-to-month trends.

On a not seasonally adjusted basis, the sample-based estimates for the year preceding and the nine months following the benchmark month (March) are also subject to revision; seasonally adjusted data are subject to revision back five years. Employment estimates for the months between the most recent March benchmark and the previous year's benchmark are adjusted using a linear "wedge-back" procedure, which assumes that the total estimation error accumulated at a steady rate since the last benchmark. For the nine months following the March benchmark (also referred to as the postbenchmark period), CES applies previously derived over-the-month sample changes to the revised March level to get the revised estimates (see Revisions in the post benchmark period). New net birth/death model estimates also are calculated and applied during postbenchmark estimation. More information on benchmarks in the CES program is available in the Benchmarks section of the CES Technical Notes at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm#section7b.

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Birth/Death

The CES sample alone is not sufficient for estimating the total nonfarm employment level because each month new firms generate employment that cannot be captured through the sample. There is an unavoidable lag between a firm opening for business and its appearance on the CES sample frame. The sample frame is built from Unemployment Insurance (UI) quarterly tax records. These records cover virtually all U.S. employers and include business births, but they only become available for updating the CES sampling frame 7 to 9 months after the reference month. After the births appear on the frame, there is also time required for sampling, contacting, and soliciting cooperation from the firm, and verifying the initial data provided. In practice, BLS cannot sample and begin to collect data from new firms until they are at least a year old.

BLS has researched both sample-based and model-based approaches to measuring birth units that have not yet appeared on the UI universe frame. The research demonstrated that sampling for births was not feasible in the very short CES production timeframes, so the Bureau utilizes a model-based approach for this component. This model incorporates two components; the first component is an indirect imputation for business deaths and the second component is an Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) time series model designed to estimate the net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation from the first component. More information on the CES birth/death model is available in the Birth/Death Model section of the CES Technical Notes at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm#section6c.

Only error from the second component is directly measurable. Error from this component is measured by comparing the actual net of births and deaths with the model-based adjustment that was used in the CES sample-based estimates. Most recently, the data from April 2015 to March 2016 can be measured. As Table 7 shows, the actual net birth/death for April 2015 to March 2016 was approximately 99,000 above the forecasted amount used in the CES monthly estimates for the same time period.

Table 7. Differences between forecasted and actual net birth/death, total private employment, April 2015 – March 2016 (in thousands)
Benchmark 2016 2015 2016 Total
Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar

Actual Net Birth/Death

324 256 97 187 121 -75 288 -2 -28 -289 113 -5 987

Forecast Net Birth/Death

223 217 114 115 115 -31 178 13 -16 -233 129 64 888

Difference

101 39 -17 72 6 -44 110 -15 -12 -56 -16 -69 99

Cumulative Difference

101 140 123 195 201 157 267 252 240 184 168 99

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Seasonal adjustment

Typically, five years’ worth of seasonally adjusted data are revised with each CES annual benchmark. As with the not seasonally adjusted data, if additional seasonally adjusted revisions to the seasonal adjustment data are made with a benchmark, those revisions will be noted in previous sections of this article.

For technical information on how seasonal adjustment is performed in the CES program, refer to the Seasonal Adjustment section of the CES Technical Notes, available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm#section6e.

For more information on seasonal adjustment model specifications and special model adjustments, please see the Seasonal Adjustment Model Specification List section of the CES Seasonal Adjustment Files and Documentation page, available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesseasadj.htm#samodel.

To Table of Figures

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Availability of revised data

LABSTAT, the BLS public database, contains all historical employment, hours, and earnings data revised as a result of this benchmark, including both not seasonally adjusted and seasonally adjusted data. The data can be accessed at www.bls.gov/ces, the CES homepage.

Previously published data are available on both a not seasonally adjusted and seasonally adjusted basis for all CES industries down to the 3-digit level from the CES Vintage Data page, available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesvininfo.htm.

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End Notes

1 CES estimates data in two ways: directly and indirectly. Directly estimated data types refer to data types for which estimates are calculated directly from the responding sample. Indirectly estimated data types refer to data types for which estimates are calculated from other directly estimated data types. Average weekly earnings of all employees and indexes of aggregate weekly hours of all employees are examples of indirectly estimated data types. For more information on indirectly estimated data types, see the CES Technical Notes available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm.

2 A matched sample link is defined to be all sample members that have reported data for the reference month and the month prior. Excluded from the matched sample link is any sample unit that reports that it is out-of-business and has zero employees. For more information, please refer to the CES Technical Notes at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm.

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Table of figures

Tables

Exhibits

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Last Modified Date: April 7, 2017