Department of Labor Logo United States Department of Labor
Dot gov

The .gov means it's official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you're on a federal government site.

Https

The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Occupational Employment Statistics
PRINT:Print
OES OES Program Links

May 2018 National Industry-Specific Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

NAICS 212200 - Metal Ore Mining


These national industry-specific occupational employment and wage estimates are calculated with data collected from employers of all sizes, in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas in every state and the District of Columbia, in NAICS 212200 - Metal Ore Mining.

Additional information, including the hourly and annual 10th, 25th, 75th, and 90th percentile wages, and the percent of establishments reporting the occupation, is available in the downloadable XLS files.

NAICS 212200 - Metal Ore Mining is part of: NAICS 212000 - Mining (except Oil and Gas).

Links to OES estimates for other industries

SOC Major Groups in NAICS 212200 - Metal Ore Mining:

To sort this table by a different column, click on the column header


NAICS 212200 - Metal Ore Mining

Occupation code Occupation title (click on the occupation title to view an occupational profile) Group Employment Employment RSE Percent of total employment Median hourly wage Mean hourly wage Annual mean wage Mean wage RSE
00-0000 All Occupations total 40,100 8.4% 100.00% $28.26 $29.88 $62,150 1.7%
11-0000 Management Occupations major 1,210 8.6% 3.01% $56.65 $62.27 $129,510 3.0%
11-1000 Top Executives minor 410 12.6% 1.02% $66.38 $72.10 $149,970 5.1%
11-1021 General and Operations Managers detail 400 12.8% 1.00% $65.65 $71.63 $148,990 5.2%
11-3000 Operations Specialties Managers minor 480 9.9% 1.21% $52.23 $54.49 $113,340 2.3%
11-3011 Administrative Services Managers detail 90 10.4% 0.22% $39.58 $46.48 $96,680 6.5%
11-3031 Financial Managers detail 60 16.8% 0.16% $53.84 $58.16 $120,980 5.1%
11-3051 Industrial Production Managers detail 190 17.5% 0.47% $51.53 $54.24 $112,820 2.3%
11-3121 Human Resources Managers detail 60 13.9% 0.14% $57.24 $63.82 $132,740 8.3%
11-9000 Other Management Occupations minor 300 13.3% 0.75% $58.54 $60.64 $126,130 3.4%
11-9021 Construction Managers detail 70 14.1% 0.17% $49.53 $51.23 $106,560 5.7%
11-9041 Architectural and Engineering Managers detail 70 15.9% 0.18% $56.33 $56.99 $118,540 3.6%
11-9199 Managers, All Other detail 150 24.1% 0.37% $66.76 $67.69 $140,800 5.1%
13-0000 Business and Financial Operations Occupations major 990 9.2% 2.47% $34.67 $36.47 $75,860 2.5%
13-1000 Business Operations Specialists minor 810 9.1% 2.01% $34.64 $36.12 $75,120 2.4%
13-1020 Buyers and Purchasing Agents broad 150 12.4% 0.38% $31.65 $32.22 $67,020 2.3%
13-1041 Compliance Officers detail 60 19.8% 0.16% $46.89 $52.74 $109,700 12.1%
13-1070 Human Resources Workers broad 160 10.0% 0.39% $31.63 $33.68 $70,050 2.1%
13-1071 Human Resources Specialists detail 160 10.1% 0.39% $31.56 $33.61 $69,910 2.1%
13-1081 Logisticians detail 80 29.6% 0.20% $35.02 $35.40 $73,630 2.6%
13-1111 Management Analysts detail 30 10.7% 0.09% $42.02 $42.29 $87,960 4.7%
13-1151 Training and Development Specialists detail 180 11.8% 0.45% $34.74 $34.56 $71,880 2.6%
13-1199 Business Operations Specialists, All Other detail 130 14.7% 0.32% $35.56 $36.36 $75,630 4.3%
13-2000 Financial Specialists minor 190 13.6% 0.47% $34.84 $38.00 $79,040 3.1%
13-2011 Accountants and Auditors detail 180 13.7% 0.46% $34.41 $37.81 $78,640 3.2%
15-0000 Computer and Mathematical Occupations major 190 10.4% 0.46% $32.88 $33.34 $69,350 3.4%
15-1100 Computer Occupations minor 180 10.6% 0.46% $32.68 $33.08 $68,800 3.4%
15-1140 Database and Systems Administrators and Network Architects broad 30 11.6% 0.09% $43.08 $43.22 $89,910 5.1%
15-1150 Computer Support Specialists broad 110 11.8% 0.29% $29.03 $29.01 $60,330 3.8%
15-1151 Computer User Support Specialists detail 60 13.2% 0.16% $26.82 $27.28 $56,740 4.1%
15-1152 Computer Network Support Specialists detail 50 20.0% 0.13% $31.55 $31.07 $64,630 6.1%
17-0000 Architecture and Engineering Occupations major 2,370 10.2% 5.90% $38.19 $40.72 $84,690 1.5%
17-1000 Architects, Surveyors, and Cartographers minor 130 14.2% 0.32% $32.56 $33.24 $69,140 2.2%
17-1020 Surveyors, Cartographers, and Photogrammetrists broad 130 14.2% 0.32% $32.56 $33.24 $69,140 2.2%
17-1022 Surveyors detail 130 14.3% 0.32% $32.50 $33.22 $69,100 2.2%
17-2000 Engineers minor 1,690 8.8% 4.22% $42.31 $44.22 $91,970 1.6%
17-2051 Civil Engineers detail 50 25.6% 0.12% $37.79 $41.06 $85,410 4.7%
17-2070 Electrical and Electronics Engineers broad 50 20.0% 0.12% $47.29 $47.27 $98,310 3.7%
17-2071 Electrical Engineers detail 50 20.7% 0.11% $47.26 $47.17 $98,120 3.8%
17-2081 Environmental Engineers detail 130 13.2% 0.33% $41.20 $43.05 $89,540 2.0%
17-2110 Industrial Engineers, Including Health and Safety broad (8) (8) (8) $44.25 $44.98 $93,550 2.8%
17-2111 Health and Safety Engineers, Except Mining Safety Engineers and Inspectors detail 40 21.3% 0.10% $48.67 $46.87 $97,490 6.2%
17-2112 Industrial Engineers detail (8) (8) (8) $43.01 $43.95 $91,420 2.7%
17-2131 Materials Engineers detail 230 10.8% 0.57% $42.44 $43.91 $91,340 2.4%
17-2141 Mechanical Engineers detail 200 15.0% 0.49% $38.57 $40.00 $83,210 3.7%
17-2151 Mining and Geological Engineers, Including Mining Safety Engineers detail 890 8.9% 2.21% $42.79 $44.92 $93,440 2.5%
17-3000 Drafters, Engineering Technicians, and Mapping Technicians minor 550 18.8% 1.37% $32.15 $31.67 $65,880 1.9%
17-3020 Engineering Technicians, Except Drafters broad 490 20.6% 1.23% $32.31 $31.94 $66,430 1.9%
17-3022 Civil Engineering Technicians detail (8) (8) (8) $29.23 $28.84 $59,990 4.5%
17-3023 Electrical and Electronics Engineering Technicians detail (8) (8) (8) $34.93 $34.65 $72,060 2.3%
17-3025 Environmental Engineering Technicians detail 50 20.5% 0.13% $30.57 $30.68 $63,820 3.1%
17-3029 Engineering Technicians, Except Drafters, All Other detail 130 9.8% 0.31% $29.38 $30.50 $63,440 1.9%
17-3031 Surveying and Mapping Technicians detail 40 11.4% 0.10% $30.64 $29.00 $60,320 5.4%
19-0000 Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations major 1,600 10.9% 3.99% $32.35 $33.61 $69,910 1.5%
19-2000 Physical Scientists minor 620 10.1% 1.53% $38.68 $40.36 $83,940 1.9%
19-2030 Chemists and Materials Scientists broad 110 18.2% 0.26% $37.30 $37.73 $78,470 3.9%
19-2031 Chemists detail 80 18.9% 0.21% $35.05 $35.40 $73,640 4.5%
19-2040 Environmental Scientists and Geoscientists broad 510 10.5% 1.26% $39.03 $40.99 $85,250 2.0%
19-2041 Environmental Scientists and Specialists, Including Health detail 60 10.6% 0.16% $36.70 $39.96 $83,120 5.2%
19-2042 Geoscientists, Except Hydrologists and Geographers detail 420 11.7% 1.05% $39.29 $41.08 $85,450 2.1%
19-4000 Life, Physical, and Social Science Technicians minor 980 12.5% 2.45% $29.21 $29.37 $61,080 1.8%
19-4031 Chemical Technicians detail 670 15.3% 1.67% $28.59 $28.72 $59,740 2.0%
19-4041 Geological and Petroleum Technicians detail 280 22.6% 0.69% $31.62 $31.13 $64,750 3.0%
27-0000 Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media Occupations major 50 30.4% 0.12% $37.70 $41.80 $86,950 6.8%
27-3000 Media and Communication Workers minor 50 30.4% 0.12% $37.70 $41.80 $86,950 6.8%
27-3031 Public Relations Specialists detail 50 32.7% 0.12% $38.71 $43.72 $90,930 6.6%
29-0000 Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations major 270 9.7% 0.66% $34.89 $35.93 $74,730 3.4%
29-9000 Other Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations minor 230 9.4% 0.56% $35.34 $36.98 $76,920 3.4%
29-9010 Occupational Health and Safety Specialists and Technicians broad 230 9.4% 0.56% $35.34 $36.98 $76,920 3.4%
29-9011 Occupational Health and Safety Specialists detail 180 10.7% 0.44% $36.55 $37.41 $77,820 3.0%
29-9012 Occupational Health and Safety Technicians detail 50 14.4% 0.12% $29.17 $35.43 $73,700 11.3%
33-0000 Protective Service Occupations major 290 9.6% 0.72% $18.32 $21.17 $44,040 5.8%
33-9000 Other Protective Service Workers minor 270 9.7% 0.67% $17.88 $20.12 $41,850 5.7%
33-9030 Security Guards and Gaming Surveillance Officers broad 270 9.5% 0.66% $17.86 $20.13 $41,870 5.7%
33-9032 Security Guards detail 270 9.5% 0.66% $17.86 $20.13 $41,870 5.7%
37-0000 Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance Occupations major 60 16.4% 0.16% $20.17 $19.17 $39,870 8.7%
37-2000 Building Cleaning and Pest Control Workers minor 60 16.8% 0.16% $19.98 $18.82 $39,140 9.2%
37-2010 Building Cleaning Workers broad 60 16.8% 0.16% $19.98 $18.82 $39,140 9.2%
37-2011 Janitors and Cleaners, Except Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners detail 60 16.8% 0.16% $19.98 $18.82 $39,140 9.2%
43-0000 Office and Administrative Support Occupations major 1,280 8.2% 3.18% $23.23 $24.58 $51,120 2.8%
43-1011 First-Line Supervisors of Office and Administrative Support Workers detail 60 13.4% 0.15% $32.66 $32.27 $67,130 4.1%
43-3000 Financial Clerks minor 140 23.1% 0.35% $26.70 $25.45 $52,940 4.1%
43-3031 Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks detail 110 27.9% 0.28% $28.05 $27.13 $56,420 3.2%
43-4000 Information and Record Clerks minor 30 18.4% 0.09% $21.23 $20.83 $43,320 5.2%
43-5000 Material Recording, Scheduling, Dispatching, and Distributing Workers minor 570 11.2% 1.41% $24.30 $26.18 $54,460 4.5%
43-5030 Dispatchers broad 50 32.5% 0.11% $31.89 $29.44 $61,240 5.7%
43-5032 Dispatchers, Except Police, Fire, and Ambulance detail 50 32.5% 0.11% $31.89 $29.44 $61,240 5.7%
43-5061 Production, Planning, and Expediting Clerks detail 210 16.9% 0.52% $34.69 $34.16 $71,060 3.0%
43-5071 Shipping, Receiving, and Traffic Clerks detail 130 18.5% 0.31% $21.55 $21.61 $44,940 3.6%
43-5081 Stock Clerks and Order Fillers detail 170 20.5% 0.42% $18.29 $19.48 $40,510 7.5%
43-6010 Secretaries and Administrative Assistants broad 230 9.0% 0.58% $21.82 $22.03 $45,820 2.5%
43-6014 Secretaries and Administrative Assistants, Except Legal, Medical, and Executive detail 200 9.0% 0.51% $21.47 $21.45 $44,610 2.6%
43-9000 Other Office and Administrative Support Workers minor 240 21.0% 0.60% $19.89 $21.27 $44,250 4.4%
43-9061 Office Clerks, General detail 220 21.1% 0.55% $20.03 $21.64 $45,020 4.6%
47-0000 Construction and Extraction Occupations major 12,480 9.6% 31.12% $28.02 $28.51 $59,300 1.7%
47-1011 First-Line Supervisors of Construction Trades and Extraction Workers detail 940 10.4% 2.34% $39.66 $40.13 $83,480 2.9%
47-2000 Construction Trades Workers minor 2,490 6.5% 6.20% $27.31 $28.03 $58,290 2.4%
47-2061 Construction Laborers detail (8) (8) (8) $18.89 $20.45 $42,530 5.1%
47-2070 Construction Equipment Operators broad 980 7.6% 2.44% $24.29 $26.22 $54,530 3.9%
47-2073 Operating Engineers and Other Construction Equipment Operators detail 980 7.6% 2.44% $24.29 $26.22 $54,530 3.9%
47-2111 Electricians detail 1,160 13.3% 2.90% $30.70 $30.41 $63,260 2.7%
47-2150 Pipelayers, Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters broad 80 45.8% 0.19% $27.52 $28.62 $59,540 11.4%
47-2152 Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters detail 80 45.8% 0.19% $27.52 $28.62 $59,540 11.4%
47-5000 Extraction Workers minor 8,970 11.6% 22.38% $27.58 $27.50 $57,190 2.1%
47-5010 Derrick, Rotary Drill, and Service Unit Operators, Oil, Gas, and Mining broad (8) (8) (8) $27.21 $28.75 $59,790 6.3%
47-5012 Rotary Drill Operators, Oil and Gas detail (8) (8) (8) $27.21 $28.75 $59,790 6.3%
47-5021 Earth Drillers, Except Oil and Gas detail 370 13.3% 0.92% $23.97 $24.97 $51,930 3.4%
47-5031 Explosives Workers, Ordnance Handling Experts, and Blasters detail (8) (8) (8) $30.00 $28.73 $59,760 3.6%
47-5040 Mining Machine Operators broad 7,250 13.7% 18.08% $27.90 $27.67 $57,560 2.1%
47-5041 Continuous Mining Machine Operators detail 5,350 16.9% 13.33% $28.16 $28.09 $58,420 2.1%
47-5042 Mine Cutting and Channeling Machine Operators detail (8) (8) (8) $28.92 $28.08 $58,400 8.1%
47-5049 Mining Machine Operators, All Other detail 1,080 27.0% 2.70% $25.89 $25.32 $52,660 5.3%
47-5081 Helpers--Extraction Workers detail 350 20.1% 0.88% $19.58 $19.94 $41,480 5.1%
47-5099 Extraction Workers, All Other detail 730 23.8% 1.82% $32.20 $30.44 $63,310 5.4%
49-0000 Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Occupations major 8,920 9.9% 22.25% $28.54 $29.02 $60,360 2.2%
49-1011 First-Line Supervisors of Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers detail 860 9.7% 2.14% $40.64 $41.59 $86,500 2.6%
49-2000 Electrical and Electronic Equipment Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers minor 120 32.0% 0.30% $30.91 $31.12 $64,730 3.5%
49-2090 Miscellaneous Electrical and Electronic Equipment Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers broad 120 32.7% 0.30% $30.70 $30.96 $64,390 3.5%
49-2094 Electrical and Electronics Repairers, Commercial and Industrial Equipment detail 120 33.5% 0.29% $30.91 $31.05 $64,590 3.8%
49-3000 Vehicle and Mobile Equipment Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers minor 2,900 11.8% 7.24% $28.63 $28.73 $59,760 2.2%
49-3020 Automotive Technicians and Repairers broad 30 24.8% 0.09% $34.54 $34.11 $70,940 5.4%
49-3023 Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics detail 30 24.8% 0.09% $34.54 $34.11 $70,940 5.4%
49-3031 Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists detail 390 22.5% 0.97% $26.34 $26.60 $55,330 2.9%
49-3040 Heavy Vehicle and Mobile Equipment Service Technicians and Mechanics broad 2,390 10.4% 5.97% $29.16 $29.10 $60,530 2.4%
49-3042 Mobile Heavy Equipment Mechanics, Except Engines detail 2,390 10.4% 5.97% $29.16 $29.10 $60,530 2.4%
49-3090 Miscellaneous Vehicle and Mobile Equipment Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers broad 90 20.2% 0.22% $24.92 $25.85 $53,770 6.1%
49-3093 Tire Repairers and Changers detail 90 20.2% 0.22% $24.92 $25.85 $53,770 6.1%
49-9000 Other Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Occupations minor 5,040 10.2% 12.57% $26.45 $27.00 $56,160 2.9%
49-9040 Industrial Machinery Installation, Repair, and Maintenance Workers broad 2,680 13.8% 6.68% $28.92 $29.41 $61,180 2.9%
49-9041 Industrial Machinery Mechanics detail 2,030 15.9% 5.06% $29.36 $30.11 $62,620 3.1%
49-9043 Maintenance Workers, Machinery detail 420 17.5% 1.04% $23.30 $24.48 $50,920 4.0%
49-9044 Millwrights detail 230 22.0% 0.58% $33.81 $32.23 $67,040 5.0%
49-9071 Maintenance and Repair Workers, General detail (8) (8) (8) $23.82 $25.18 $52,380 4.7%
49-9090 Miscellaneous Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers broad 480 27.0% 1.19% $19.52 $20.27 $42,160 6.2%
49-9098 Helpers--Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers detail (8) (8) (8) $19.74 $18.95 $39,420 3.9%
49-9099 Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers, All Other detail (8) (8) (8) $18.32 $21.72 $45,170 15.0%
51-0000 Production Occupations major 5,440 13.5% 13.56% $24.62 $25.93 $53,940 2.2%
51-1011 First-Line Supervisors of Production and Operating Workers detail 840 14.5% 2.09% $35.19 $35.65 $74,150 3.4%
51-4000 Metal Workers and Plastic Workers minor 1,260 18.3% 3.13% $23.64 $24.13 $50,190 3.9%
51-4030 Machine Tool Cutting Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic broad (8) (8) (8) $22.77 $23.06 $47,970 4.4%
51-4035 Milling and Planing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic detail 500 29.3% 1.25% $21.85 $21.88 $45,510 2.8%
51-4041 Machinists detail 50 16.5% 0.12% $27.28 $27.46 $57,120 4.8%
51-4120 Welding, Soldering, and Brazing Workers broad 480 23.8% 1.20% (8) (8) (8) (8)
51-4121 Welders, Cutters, Solderers, and Brazers detail 480 23.8% 1.20% (8) (8) (8) (8)
51-8000 Plant and System Operators minor 500 22.1% 1.24% $28.93 $29.60 $61,570 3.3%
51-8031 Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant and System Operators detail 120 13.8% 0.31% $30.29 $29.78 $61,930 4.3%
51-8090 Miscellaneous Plant and System Operators broad 340 31.9% 0.85% $28.25 $29.27 $60,890 4.9%
51-8099 Plant and System Operators, All Other detail 340 31.9% 0.85% $28.25 $29.27 $60,890 4.9%
51-9000 Other Production Occupations minor 2,840 15.6% 7.08% $22.78 $23.23 $48,310 2.5%
51-9010 Chemical Processing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders broad 690 17.9% 1.72% $24.16 $25.30 $52,630 4.6%
51-9012 Separating, Filtering, Clarifying, Precipitating, and Still Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders detail 690 18.0% 1.72% $24.16 $25.30 $52,630 4.5%
51-9020 Crushing, Grinding, Polishing, Mixing, and Blending Workers broad 700 13.4% 1.74% $24.02 $25.76 $53,580 3.4%
51-9021 Crushing, Grinding, and Polishing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders detail 700 13.5% 1.74% $24.04 $25.77 $53,600 3.4%
51-9051 Furnace, Kiln, Oven, Drier, and Kettle Operators and Tenders detail 670 39.4% 1.66% $21.73 $21.22 $44,140 5.9%
51-9061 Inspectors, Testers, Sorters, Samplers, and Weighers detail 380 14.4% 0.94% $21.73 $22.00 $45,760 4.1%
51-9190 Miscellaneous Production Workers broad 410 28.9% 1.02% $18.40 $19.79 $41,160 9.5%
51-9198 Helpers--Production Workers detail 220 39.8% 0.55% $14.06 $15.54 $32,330 5.5%
51-9199 Production Workers, All Other detail 190 38.7% 0.46% $23.21 $24.88 $51,750 8.8%
53-0000 Transportation and Material Moving Occupations major 4,910 13.0% 12.24% $23.22 $24.83 $51,650 3.3%
53-1000 Supervisors of Transportation and Material Moving Workers minor 320 30.3% 0.79% $29.60 $30.17 $62,750 3.5%
53-1048 First-Line Supervisors of Transportation and Material Moving Workers, Except Aircraft Cargo Handling Supervisors detail 320 30.4% 0.79% $29.54 $30.15 $62,700 3.5%
53-3000 Motor Vehicle Operators minor 3,140 13.6% 7.84% $23.08 $24.97 $51,940 4.3%
53-3030 Driver/Sales Workers and Truck Drivers broad 3,140 13.6% 7.84% $23.08 $24.97 $51,940 4.3%
53-3032 Heavy and Tractor-Trailer Truck Drivers detail 3,130 13.7% 7.80% $23.10 $24.99 $51,980 4.3%
53-7000 Material Moving Workers minor 1,440 12.6% 3.59% $22.73 $23.32 $48,510 3.1%
53-7030 Dredge, Excavating, and Loading Machine Operators broad 570 23.7% 1.42% $26.29 $25.88 $53,820 4.2%
53-7032 Excavating and Loading Machine and Dragline Operators detail 400 24.6% 0.99% $24.65 $24.78 $51,540 4.3%
53-7033 Loading Machine Operators, Underground Mining detail 160 41.4% 0.41% $29.30 $28.65 $59,600 6.6%
53-7051 Industrial Truck and Tractor Operators detail 170 25.5% 0.43% $25.50 $25.92 $53,900 5.3%
53-7060 Laborers and Material Movers, Hand broad 540 15.1% 1.35% $17.25 $18.22 $37,900 3.5%
53-7062 Laborers and Freight, Stock, and Material Movers, Hand detail 530 15.3% 1.33% $17.31 $18.32 $38,100 3.5%


About May 2018 National Industry-Specific Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

(1) Estimates for detailed occupations do not sum to the totals because the totals include occupations not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.

(2) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a "year-round, full-time" hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.

(3) The relative standard error (RSE) is a measure of the reliability of a survey statistic. The smaller the relative standard error, the more precise the estimate.

(8) Estimate not released.




Other OES estimates and related information:

May 2018 National Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates (cross-industry estimates)

May 2018 State Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates (cross-industry estimates)

May 2018 Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Area Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates (cross-industry estimates)

May 2018 National Industry-Specific Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

May 2018 Occupation Profiles

Technical notes

 

Last Modified Date: April 2, 2019