Bureau of Labor Statistics

Genetic Counselors

genetic counselors image
Genetic counselors assess individual or family risk for a variety of inherited conditions, such as genetic disorders and birth defects.
Quick Facts: Genetic Counselors
2020 Median Pay $85,700 per year
$41.20 per hour
Typical Entry-Level Education Master's degree
Work Experience in a Related Occupation None
On-the-job Training None
Number of Jobs, 2019 2,600
Job Outlook, 2019-29 21% (Much faster than average)
Employment Change, 2019-29 600

Summary

What Genetic Counselors Do

Genetic counselors assess individual or family risk for a variety of inherited conditions, such as genetic disorders and birth defects.

Work Environment

Genetic counselors work in university medical centers, private and public hospitals, diagnostic laboratories, and physicians’ offices. They work with families, patients, and other medical professionals. Most genetic counselors work full time.

How to Become a Genetic Counselor

Genetic counselors typically need a master’s degree in genetic counseling or genetics, and board certification.

Pay

The median annual wage for genetic counselors was $85,700 in May 2020.

Job Outlook

Employment of genetic counselors is projected to grow 21 percent from 2019 to 2029, much faster than the average for all occupations. Ongoing technological innovations, including improvements in lab tests and developments in genomics, which is the study of the whole genome, are giving counselors opportunities to conduct more types of analyses.

State & Area Data

Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for genetic counselors.

Similar Occupations

Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of genetic counselors with similar occupations.

More Information, Including Links to O*NET

Learn more about genetic counselors by visiting additional resources, including O*NET, a source on key characteristics of workers and occupations.

What Genetic Counselors Do

genetic counselors image
Genetic counselors provide information and advice to other healthcare providers, or to individuals and families concerned with the risk of inherited conditions.

Genetic counselors assess individual or family risk for a variety of inherited conditions, such as genetic disorders and birth defects. They provide information and support to other healthcare providers, or to individuals and families concerned with the risk of inherited conditions.

Duties

Genetic counselors typically do the following:

  • Interview patients to get comprehensive individual family and medical histories
  • Evaluate genetic information to identify patients or families at risk for specific genetic disorders
  • Write detailed consultation reports to provide information on complex genetic concepts for patients or referring physicians
  • Discuss testing options and the associated risks, benefits, and limitations with patients, families, and other healthcare providers
  • Counsel patients and family members by providing information, education, or reassurance regarding genetic risks and inherited conditions
  • Participate in professional organizations or conferences to keep abreast of developments in genetics and genomics

Genetic counselors identify specific genetic disorders or risks through the study of genetics. A genetic disorder or syndrome is inherited. For parents who are expecting children, counselors use genetics to predict whether a baby is likely to have hereditary disorders, such as Down syndrome and cystic fibrosis, among others. Genetic counselors also assess the risk for an adult to develop diseases with a genetic component, such as certain forms of cancer.

Counselors identify these conditions by studying patients’ genes through DNA testing. Medical laboratory technologists perform lab tests, which genetic counselors then evaluate and use for counseling patients and their families. They share this information with other health professionals, such as physicians and medical and clinical laboratory technologists and technicians.

According to a 2016 survey from the National Society of Genetic Counselors, most genetic counselors specialize in traditional areas of genetic counseling: prenatal, cancer, and pediatric. The survey noted that genetic counselors also may work in one or more specialty fields such as cardiovascular health, genomic medicine, neurogenetics, and psychiatry.

Work Environment

genetic counselors image
Genetic counselors work in university medical centers, private and public hospitals, and physicians’ offices.

Genetic counselors held about 2,600 jobs in 2019. The largest employers of genetic counselors were as follows:

Hospitals; state, local, and private 43%
Offices of physicians 13
Colleges, universities, and professional schools; state, local, and private 12
Medical and diagnostic laboratories 11
Self-employed workers 5

Genetic counselors work with families, patients, and other medical professionals.

Work Schedules

Most genetic counselors work full time and have a standard work schedule.

How to Become a Genetic Counselor

genetic counselors image
Genetic counselors must be sensitive and compassionate when communicating their findings.

Genetic counselors typically need a master’s degree in genetic counseling or genetics, and board certification.

Education

Genetic counselors typically need a master’s degree in genetic counseling or genetics.

Coursework in genetic counseling includes public health, epidemiology, psychology, and developmental biology. Classes emphasize genetics, public health, and patient empathy. Students also must complete clinical rotations, during which they work directly with patients and clients. Clinical rotations provide supervised experience for students, allowing them to work in different work environments, such as prenatal diagnostic centers, pediatric hospitals, or cancer centers.

The Accreditation Council for Genetic Counseling accredits master's degree programs.

Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations

The American Board of Genetic Counseling provides certification for genetic counselors. To become certified, a student must complete an accredited master’s degree program and pass an exam. Counselors must complete continuing education courses to maintain their board certification.

About half of the states require genetic counselors to be licensed and other states have pending legislation for licensure. Certification is typically needed to get a license. For specific licensing requirements, contact the state’s medical board.

Employers typically require or prefer prospective genetic counselors to be certified, even if the state does not require it.

Important Qualities

Communication skills. Genetic counselors must be able to simplify complex findings so that their patients understand them.

Compassion. Patients may seek advice on family care or serious illnesses. Genetic counselors must be sensitive and compassionate when communicating their findings.

Critical-thinking skills. Genetic counselors analyze laboratory findings to determine how best to advise a patient or family. They use their applied knowledge of genetics to assess inherited risks properly.

Decisionmaking skills. Genetic counselors must use their expertise and experience to determine how to share their findings properly with patients.

Pay

Genetic Counselors

Median annual wages, May 2020

Genetic counselors

$85,700

Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

$51,560

Total, all occupations

$41,950

 

The median annual wage for genetic counselors was $85,700 in May 2020. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $66,930, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $126,350.

In May 2020, the median annual wages for genetic counselors in the top industries in which they worked were as follows:

Medical and diagnostic laboratories $87,400
Hospitals; state, local, and private 84,680
Offices of physicians 82,900
Colleges, universities, and professional schools; state, local, and private 79,490

Most genetic counselors work full time and have a standard work schedule.

Job Outlook

Genetic Counselors

Percent change in employment, projected 2019-29

Genetic counselors

21%

Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

11%

Total, all occupations

4%

 

Employment of genetic counselors is projected to grow 21 percent from 2019 to 2029, much faster than the average for all occupations. However, because it is a small occupation, the fast growth will result in only about 600 new jobs over the 10-year period.

Ongoing technological innovations, including lab tests and developments in genomics, are giving counselors opportunities to conduct more types of analyses. Cancer genomics, for example, can determine a patient’s risk for specific types of cancer. The number and types of tests that genetic counselors can administer and evaluate have increased over the past few years. Many types of genetic tests are covered by health insurance providers.

Job Prospects

Genetic counselors who graduate from an accredited program and pass the board certification exam can generally expect the most favorable job prospects.

Employment projections data for genetic counselors, 2019-29

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program

Occupational Title

Genetic counselors

SOC Code29-9092
Employment, 20192,600
Projected Employment, 20293,200
Percent Change, 2019-2921
Numeric Change, 2019-29600
Employment by IndustryGet data

State & Area Data

Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS)

The Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS) program produces employment and wage estimates annually for over 800 occupations. These estimates are available for the nation as a whole, for individual states, and for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. The link(s) below go to OEWS data maps for employment and wages by state and area.

Projections Central

Occupational employment projections are developed for all states by Labor Market Information (LMI) or individual state Employment Projections offices. All state projections data are available at www.projectionscentral.com. Information on this site allows projected employment growth for an occupation to be compared among states or to be compared within one state. In addition, states may produce projections for areas; there are links to each state’s websites where these data may be retrieved.

CareerOneStop

CareerOneStop includes hundreds of occupational profiles with data available by state and metro area. There are links in the left-hand side menu to compare occupational employment by state and occupational wages by local area or metro area. There is also a salary info tool to search for wages by zip code.

Similar Occupations

This table shows a list of occupations with job duties that are similar to those of genetic counselors.

Occupation Job Duties ENTRY-LEVEL EDUCATION 2020 MEDIAN PAY
Epidemiologists

Epidemiologists

Epidemiologists are public health professionals who investigate patterns and causes of disease and injury in humans.

Master's degree $74,560
Health educators

Health Educators and Community Health Workers

Health educators teach people about behaviors that promote wellness. Community health workers collect data and discuss health concerns with members of specific populations or communities.

See How to Become One $48,140
Medical scientists

Medical Scientists

Medical scientists conduct research aimed at improving overall human health.

Doctoral or professional degree $91,510
Mental health counselors and marriage and family therapists

Marriage and Family Therapists

Marriage and family therapists help people manage and overcome problems with family and other relationships.

Master's degree $51,340
Physicians and surgeons

Physicians and Surgeons

Physicians and surgeons diagnose and treat injuries or illnesses and address health maintenance.

Doctoral or professional degree This wage is equal to or greater than $208,000 per year.

Contacts for More Info

For more information about genetic counselors, certification, and schools offering education in genetic counseling, visit

American Board of Genetic Counseling

For more information about genetic counseling career requirements and developments in genetics, including licensure, visit

National Society of Genetic Counselors

For more information about accreditation and schools offering education in genetic counseling, visit

Accreditation Council for Genetic Counseling

CareerOneStop

For a career video on genetic counselors, visit

Genetic Counselors

O*NET

Genetic Counselors

Last Modified Date: Friday, April 9, 2021

Suggested citation:

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Genetic Counselors,
at https://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/genetic-counselors.htm (visited June 15, 2021).

Telephone: 1-202-691-5700 www.bls.gov/ooh Contact OOH

View this page on regular www.bls.gov

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