Bureau of Labor Statistics

Wholesale and Manufacturing Sales Representatives

wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives image
Wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives sell goods for wholesalers or manufacturers to businesses, government agencies, and other organizations.
Quick Facts: Wholesale and Manufacturing Sales Representatives
2020 Median Pay $65,420 per year
$31.45 per hour
Typical Entry-Level Education See How to Become One
Work Experience in a Related Occupation None
On-the-job Training Moderate-term on-the-job training
Number of Jobs, 2020 1,625,700
Job Outlook, 2020-30 5% (Slower than average)
Employment Change, 2020-30 77,600

Summary

What Wholesale and Manufacturing Sales Representatives Do

Wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives sell goods for wholesalers or manufacturers to businesses, government agencies, and other organizations.

Work Environment

Wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives work under pressure because their income and job security depend on the amount of merchandise they sell. Some sales representatives travel frequently.

How to Become a Wholesale or Manufacturing Sales Representative

Educational requirements vary for sales representatives and depend on the type of products sold. If the products are not scientific or technical, a high school diploma is generally sufficient for entry into the occupation. If the products are scientific or technical, sales representatives typically need at least a bachelor's degree.

Pay

The median annual wage for sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing, except technical and scientific products was $62,070 in May 2020.

The median annual wage for sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing, technical and scientific products was $86,650 in May 2020.

Job Outlook

Overall employment of wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives is projected to grow 5 percent from 2020 to 2030, slower than the average for all occupations.

Despite limited employment growth, about 169,400 openings for wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives are projected each year, on average, over the decade. Most of those openings are expected to result from the need to replace workers who transfer to different occupations or exit the labor force, such as to retire.

State & Area Data

Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives.

Similar Occupations

Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives with similar occupations.

More Information, Including Links to O*NET

Learn more about wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives by visiting additional resources, including O*NET, a source on key characteristics of workers and occupations.

What Wholesale and Manufacturing Sales Representatives Do

Wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives
Some wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives specialize in technical and scientific products, ranging from agricultural and mechanical equipment to computer and pharmaceutical goods.

Wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives sell goods for wholesalers or manufacturers to businesses, government agencies, and other organizations. They contact customers, explain the features of the products they are selling, negotiate prices, and answer any questions that their customers may have about the products.

Duties

Wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives typically do the following:

  • Identify prospective customers by using business directories, following leads from existing clients, and attending trade shows and conferences
  • Contact new and existing customers to discuss their needs and explain how specific products and services can meet these needs
  • Help customers select products to meet customers’ needs, product specifications, and regulations
  • Emphasize product features that will meet customers’ needs, and exhibit the capabilities and limitations of their products
  • Answer customers’ questions about the prices, availability, and uses of the products they are selling
  • Negotiate prices and terms of sales and service agreements
  • Prepare sales contracts and submit orders for processing
  • Collaborate with colleagues to exchange information, such as information on selling strategies and marketing information
  • Follow up with customers to make sure that they are satisfied with their purchases and to answer any questions or concerns they might have

Wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives—sometimes called manufacturers’ representatives or manufacturers’ agents—generally work for manufacturers or wholesalers. Some work for a single organization, while others represent several companies and sell a range of products.

Unlike retail sales workers, who sell goods directly to consumers, wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives deal with businesses, government agencies, and other organizations.

Some wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives work with nonscientific products, such as food, office supplies, and clothing. Other representatives specialize in technical and scientific products, ranging from agricultural and mechanical equipment to computer and pharmaceutical goods.

Wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives who lack expertise about a given product frequently team with a technical expert. In this arrangement, the technical expert—sometimes a sales engineer—attends the sales presentation to explain the product and answer questions or concerns. The sales representative makes the initial contact with customers, introduces the company’s product, and obtains final agreement from the potential buyer.

By working with a technical expert, the representative is able to spend more time maintaining and soliciting accounts and less time seeking technical knowledge.

After the sale, representatives may make followup visits to ensure that equipment is functioning properly and may even help train customers’ employees to operate and maintain new equipment.

Those selling consumer goods often suggest how and where merchandise should be displayed. When working with retailers, they may help arrange promotional programs, store displays, and advertising.

In addition to selling products, wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives analyze sales statistics, prepare reports, and handle administrative duties such as filing expense accounts, scheduling appointments, and making travel plans.

Staying up to date on new products and the changing needs of customers is important. Sales representatives accomplish this aim in a variety of ways, including attending trade shows at which new products and technologies are showcased. They attend conferences and conventions to meet other sales representatives and clients and to discuss new product developments. They also read about new and existing products and monitor the sales, prices, and products of their competitors.

The following are examples of types of wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives:

Inside sales representatives work mostly in offices while making sales. Frequently, they are responsible for getting new clients by “cold-calling” various organizations, meaning that they call potential customers who are not expecting to be contacted. That way, a representative can establish an initial contact. They also take incoming calls from customers who are interested in their product, and they process paperwork to complete the sale.

Outside sales representatives spend much of their time traveling to and visiting with current clients and prospective buyers. During a sales call, they discuss the client’s needs and suggest how they can meet those needs with merchandise or services. They may show samples or catalogs that describe items their company provides, and they may inform customers about the prices and availability of the products they are selling and the ways in which their products can save money and boost productivity.

Work Environment

Wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives
Some wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives have large territories and travel considerably.

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing, except technical and scientific products held about 1.3 million jobs in 2020. The largest employers of sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing, except technical and scientific products were as follows:

Merchant wholesalers, durable goods 32%
Merchant wholesalers, nondurable goods 20
Manufacturing 17
Wholesale electronic markets and agents and brokers 10
Retail trade 5

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing, technical and scientific products held about 298,200 jobs in 2020. The largest employers of sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing, technical and scientific products were as follows:

Professional and commercial equipment and supplies merchant wholesalers 20%
Manufacturing 16
Merchant wholesalers, nondurable goods 14
Professional, scientific, and technical services 13
Wholesale electronic markets and agents and brokers 7

Some wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives have large territories and travel considerably. Because a sales region may cover several states, representatives may be away from home for several days or weeks at a time. Sales representatives who cover a smaller region may not spend much time away from home.

Other wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives spend a lot of their time on the phone, selling goods, taking orders, and resolving problems or complaints about the merchandise. They also use Web technology, including chats, email, and video conferencing, to contact clients.

Workers in this occupation can be under considerable stress because their income and job security often depend directly on the amount of merchandise they sell and their companies usually set goals or quotas that they are expected to meet.

Work Schedules

Most wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives work full time and many work more than 40 hours per week.

How to Become a Wholesale or Manufacturing Sales Representative

Wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives
Sales representatives of scientific or technical products, such as pharmaceuticals or medical instruments, typically need a degree in a field related to the product sold.

Educational requirements vary with the type of product sold. If the products are not scientific or technical, a high school diploma is generally enough for entry into the occupation. If the products are scientific or technical, sales representatives typically need at least a bachelor’s degree.

Education

A high school diploma is typically sufficient for many positions, primarily those selling nontechnical or scientific products. However, representatives selling scientific and technical products usually must have a bachelor’s degree. Scientific and technical products include pharmaceuticals, medical instruments, and industrial equipment. A degree in a field related to the product sold, such as chemistry, biology, or engineering, is sometimes required.

Many sales representatives attend seminars in sales techniques or take courses in marketing, economics, communication, or even a foreign language to improve their ability to make sales.

Training

Many companies have formal training programs for beginning wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives. These programs may last up to 1 year. In some, trainees rotate among jobs in plants and offices in order to learn all phases of producing, installing, and distributing the product. In others, trainees receive formal technical instruction at the plant, followed by on-the-job training under the supervision of a field sales manager.

New employees may be trained by going along with experienced workers on their sales calls. As they gain familiarity with the firm’s products and clients, the new workers gain more responsibility until they eventually get their own territory.

Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations

The Certified Professional Manufacturers’ Representative (CPMR) certification and the Certified Sales Professional (CSP) certification are both offered by the Manufacturers’ Representatives Educational Research Foundation (MRERF). Certification typically involves completing formal technical training and passing an exam. In addition, the CPMR requires 10 hours of continuing education every year in order to maintain certification.

Advancement

Frequently, promotion takes the form of an assignment to a larger account or territory, for which commissions are likely to be greater. Those who have good sales records and leadership ability may advance to higher level positions, such as sales manager, sales supervisor, district manager, or vice president of sales.

Important Qualities

Customer-service skills. Wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives must be able to listen to the customer’s needs and concerns before and after the sale.

Interpersonal skills. Wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives must be able to work well with many types of people. They must be able to build good relationships with clients and with other members of the sales team.

Physical stamina. Wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives are often on their feet for a long time and may carry heavy sample products.

Self-confidence. Wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives must be confident and persuasive when making sales presentations. In addition, making a call to a potential customer who is not expecting to be contacted, or “cold-calling,” requires confidence and composure.

Pay

Wholesale and Manufacturing Sales Representatives

Median annual wages, May 2020

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing, technical and scientific products

$86,650

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

$65,420

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing, except technical and scientific products

$62,070

Total, all occupations

$41,950

Sales and related occupations

$31,500

 

The median annual wage for sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing, except technical and scientific products was $62,070 in May 2020. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $31,950, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $129,200.

The median annual wage for sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing, technical and scientific products was $86,650 in May 2020. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $42,820, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $171,700.

In May 2020, the median annual wages for sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing, except technical and scientific products in the top industries in which they worked were as follows:

Wholesale electronic markets and agents and brokers $69,950
Manufacturing 65,830
Merchant wholesalers, durable goods 60,970
Merchant wholesalers, nondurable goods 58,730
Retail trade 54,810

In May 2020, the median annual wages for sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing, technical and scientific products in the top industries in which they worked were as follows:

Professional, scientific, and technical services $98,210
Merchant wholesalers, nondurable goods 94,750
Wholesale electronic markets and agents and brokers 92,740
Manufacturing 91,650
Professional and commercial equipment and supplies merchant wholesalers 80,150

Compensation for representatives varies considerably with the type of firm and the product sold. Most employers use a combination of salary and commissions or salary plus bonuses. Commissions usually are based on a percentage of sales. Bonuses may depend on the individual’s performance, on the performance of all sales workers in the group or district, or on the company’s performance.

Most wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives work full time and many work more than 40 hours per week.

Job Outlook

Wholesale and Manufacturing Sales Representatives

Percent change in employment, projected 2020-30

Total, all occupations

8%

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing, technical and scientific products

6%

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

5%

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing, except technical and scientific products

4%

Sales and related occupations

-1%

 

Overall employment of wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives is projected to grow 5 percent from 2020 to 2030, slower than the average for all occupations.

Despite limited employment growth, about 169,400 openings for wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives are projected each year, on average, over the decade. Most of those openings are expected to result from the need to replace workers who transfer to different occupations or exit the labor force, such as to retire.

Employment

In addition to a rising total volume of sales, a wider range of products and technologies will lead to increased demand for sales representatives. Although wholesale sales are increasingly being conducted online, these online sales are expected to complement, rather than replace, face-to-face selling. Therefore, online sales are not expected to have a negative effect on employment growth for these workers.

Employment growth is expected to be stronger for sales representatives working at independent sales agencies, because companies often shift their sales activities to independent agencies to cut costs and boost revenue. These independent companies do not buy and hold the products they are selling. Instead, they operate on a fee or commission basis in representing the product manufacturer.

Employment projections data for wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives, 2020-30

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program

Occupational Title

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

SOC Code41-4000
Employment, 20201,625,700
Projected Employment, 20301,703,300
Percent Change, 2020-305
Numeric Change, 2020-3077,600
Employment by IndustryGet data
Occupational Title

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing, technical and scientific products

SOC Code41-4011
Employment, 2020298,200
Projected Employment, 2030316,500
Percent Change, 2020-306
Numeric Change, 2020-3018,200
Employment by IndustryGet data
Occupational Title

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing, except technical and scientific products

SOC Code41-4012
Employment, 20201,327,500
Projected Employment, 20301,386,800
Percent Change, 2020-304
Numeric Change, 2020-3059,400
Employment by IndustryGet data

State & Area Data

Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS)

The Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS) program produces employment and wage estimates annually for over 800 occupations. These estimates are available for the nation as a whole, for individual states, and for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. The link(s) below go to OES data maps for employment and wages by state and area.

Projections Central

Occupational employment projections are developed for all states by Labor Market Information (LMI) or individual state Employment Projections offices. All state projections data are available at www.projectionscentral.com. Information on this site allows projected employment growth for an occupation to be compared among states or to be compared within one state. In addition, states may produce projections for areas; there are links to each state’s websites where these data may be retrieved.

CareerOneStop

CareerOneStop includes hundreds of occupational profiles with data available by state and metro area. There are links in the left-hand side menu to compare occupational employment by state and occupational wages by local area or metro area. There is also a salary info tool to search for wages by zip code.

Similar Occupations

This table shows a list of occupations with job duties that are similar to those of wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives.

Occupation Job Duties ENTRY-LEVEL EDUCATION 2020 MEDIAN PAY
Advertising sales agents Advertising Sales Agents

Advertising sales agents sell advertising space to businesses and individuals.

High school diploma or equivalent $54,940
Insurance sales agents Insurance Sales Agents

Insurance sales agents contact potential customers and sell one or more types of insurance.

High school diploma or equivalent $52,180
Purchasing managers, buyers, and purchasing agents Purchasing Managers, Buyers, and Purchasing Agents

Buyers and purchasing agents buy products and services for organizations. Purchasing managers oversee the work of buyers and purchasing agents.

Bachelor's degree $72,270
Real estate brokers and sales agents Real Estate Brokers and Sales Agents

Real estate brokers and sales agents help clients buy, sell, and rent properties.

High school diploma or equivalent $51,220
Retail sales workers Retail Sales Workers

Retail sales workers help customers find products they want and process customers’ payments.

No formal educational credential $27,320
Sales engineers Sales Engineers

Sales engineers sell complex scientific and technological products or services to businesses.

Bachelor's degree $108,830
Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents Securities, Commodities, and Financial Services Sales Agents

Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents connect buyers and sellers in financial markets.

Bachelor's degree $64,770
Customer service representatives Customer Service Representatives

Customer service representatives interact with customers to handle complaints, process orders, and answer questions.

High school diploma or equivalent $35,830
public relations specialists image Public Relations Specialists

Public relations specialists create and maintain a favorable public image for the organization they represent.

Bachelor's degree $62,810
Sales managers Sales Managers

Sales managers direct organizations' sales teams.

Bachelor's degree $132,290

Contacts for More Info

Last Modified Date: Wednesday, September 8, 2021

Suggested citation:

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Wholesale and Manufacturing Sales Representatives,
at https://www.bls.gov/ooh/sales/wholesale-and-manufacturing-sales-representatives.htm (visited October 03, 2021).

Telephone: 1-202-691-5700 www.bls.gov/ooh Contact OOH

View this page on regular www.bls.gov

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