Department of Labor Logo United States Department of Labor
Dot gov

The .gov means it's official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you're on a federal government site.

Https

The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Education and training assignments by detailed occupation

Other available formats: (XLSX)

Table 5.4 Education and training assignments by detailed occupation, 2019

2019 National Employment Matrix title and code

Typical education needed for entry

Work experience in a related occupation

Typical on-the-job training needed to attain competency in the occupation

Chief executives

11-1011

Bachelor's degree

5 years or more

None

General and operations managers

11-1021

Bachelor's degree

5 years or more

None

Legislators

11-1031

Bachelor's degree

Less than 5 years

None

Advertising and promotions managers

11-2011

Bachelor's degree

Less than 5 years

None

Marketing managers

11-2021

Bachelor's degree

5 years or more

None

Sales managers

11-2022

Bachelor's degree

Less than 5 years

None

Public relations and fundraising managers

11-2030

Bachelor's degree

5 years or more

None

Administrative services and facilities managers

11-3010

Bachelor's degree

Less than 5 years

None

Computer and information systems managers

11-3021

Bachelor's degree

5 years or more

None

Financial managers

11-3031

Bachelor's degree

5 years or more

None

Industrial production managers

11-3051

Bachelor's degree

5 years or more

None

Purchasing managers

11-3061

Bachelor's degree

5 years or more

None

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

11-3071

High school diploma or equivalent

5 years or more

None

Compensation and benefits managers

11-3111

Bachelor's degree

5 years or more

None

Human resources managers

11-3121

Bachelor's degree

5 years or more

None

Training and development managers

11-3131

Bachelor's degree

5 years or more

None

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

11-9013

High school diploma or equivalent

5 years or more

None

Construction managers

11-9021

Bachelor's degree

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Education and childcare administrators, preschool and daycare

11-9031

Bachelor's degree

Less than 5 years

None

Education administrators, kindergarten through secondary

11-9032

Master's degree

5 years or more

None

Education administrators, postsecondary

11-9033

Master's degree

Less than 5 years

None

Education administrators, all other

11-9039

Bachelor's degree

Less than 5 years

None

Architectural and engineering managers

11-9041

Bachelor's degree

5 years or more

None

Food service managers

11-9051

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

None

Gambling managers

11-9071

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

None

Lodging managers

11-9081

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

None

Medical and health services managers

11-9111

Bachelor's degree

Less than 5 years

None

Natural sciences managers

11-9121

Bachelor's degree

5 years or more

None

Postmasters and mail superintendents

11-9131

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Property, real estate, and community association managers

11-9141

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

None

Social and community service managers

11-9151

Bachelor's degree

Less than 5 years

None

Emergency management directors

11-9161

Bachelor's degree

5 years or more

None

Funeral home managers

11-9171

Associate's degree

Less than 5 years

None

Personal service managers, all other; entertainment and recreation managers, except gambling; and managers, all other

11-9198

Bachelor's degree

Less than 5 years

None

Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

13-1011

Bachelor's degree

Less than 5 years

None

Buyers and purchasing agents

13-1020

Bachelor's degree

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Claims adjusters, examiners, and investigators

13-1031

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Insurance appraisers, auto damage

13-1032

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Compliance officers

13-1041

Bachelor's degree

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Cost estimators

13-1051

Bachelor's degree

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Human resources specialists

13-1071

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Farm labor contractors

13-1074

No formal educational credential

Less than 5 years

Short-term on-the-job training

Labor relations specialists

13-1075

Bachelor's degree

Less than 5 years

None

Logisticians

13-1081

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Management analysts

13-1111

Bachelor's degree

Less than 5 years

None

Meeting, convention, and event planners

13-1121

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Fundraisers

13-1131

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

13-1141

Bachelor's degree

Less than 5 years

None

Training and development specialists

13-1151

Bachelor's degree

Less than 5 years

None

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

13-1161

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Project management specialists and business operations specialists, all other

13-1198

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Accountants and auditors

13-2011

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Property appraisers and assessors

13-2020

Bachelor's degree

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Budget analysts

13-2031

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Credit analysts

13-2041

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Personal financial advisors

13-2052

Bachelor's degree

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Insurance underwriters

13-2053

Bachelor's degree

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Financial examiners

13-2061

Bachelor's degree

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Credit counselors

13-2071

Bachelor's degree

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Loan officers

13-2072

Bachelor's degree

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

13-2081

Bachelor's degree

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Tax preparers

13-2082

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Financial and investment analysts, financial risk specialists, and financial specialists, all other

13-2098

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Computer systems analysts

15-1211

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Information security analysts

15-1212

Bachelor's degree

Less than 5 years

None

Computer and information research scientists

15-1221

Master's degree

None

None

Computer network support specialists

15-1231

Associate's degree

None

None

Computer user support specialists

15-1232

Some college, no degree

None

None

Computer network architects

15-1241

Bachelor's degree

5 years or more

None

Network and computer systems administrators

15-1244

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Database administrators and architects

15-1245

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Computer programmers

15-1251

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Software developers and software quality assurance analysts and testers

15-1256

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Web developers and digital interface designers

15-1257

Associate's degree

None

None

Computer occupations, all other

15-1299

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Actuaries

15-2011

Bachelor's degree

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Mathematicians

15-2021

Master's degree

None

None

Operations research analysts

15-2031

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Statisticians

15-2041

Master's degree

None

None

Data scientists and mathematical science occupations, all other

15-2098

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Architects, except landscape and naval

17-1011

Bachelor's degree

None

Internship/residency

Landscape architects

17-1012

Bachelor's degree

None

Internship/residency

Cartographers and photogrammetrists

17-1021

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Surveyors

17-1022

Bachelor's degree

None

Internship/residency

Aerospace engineers

17-2011

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Agricultural engineers

17-2021

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Bioengineers and biomedical engineers

17-2031

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Chemical engineers

17-2041

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Civil engineers

17-2051

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Computer hardware engineers

17-2061

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Electrical engineers

17-2071

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Electronics engineers, except computer

17-2072

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Environmental engineers

17-2081

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Health and safety engineers, except mining safety engineers and inspectors

17-2111

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Industrial engineers

17-2112

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Marine engineers and naval architects

17-2121

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Materials engineers

17-2131

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Mechanical engineers

17-2141

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

17-2151

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Nuclear engineers

17-2161

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Petroleum engineers

17-2171

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Engineers, all other

17-2199

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Architectural and civil drafters

17-3011

Associate's degree

None

None

Electrical and electronics drafters

17-3012

Associate's degree

None

None

Mechanical drafters

17-3013

Associate's degree

None

None

Drafters, all other

17-3019

Associate's degree

None

None

Aerospace engineering and operations technologists and technicians

17-3021

Associate's degree

None

None

Civil engineering technologists and technicians

17-3022

Associate's degree

None

None

Electrical and electronic engineering technologists and technicians

17-3023

Associate's degree

None

None

Electro-mechanical and mechatronics technologists and technicians

17-3024

Associate's degree

None

None

Environmental engineering technologists and technicians

17-3025

Associate's degree

None

None

Industrial engineering technologists and technicians

17-3026

Associate's degree

None

None

Mechanical engineering technologists and technicians

17-3027

Associate's degree

None

None

Surveying and mapping technicians

17-3031

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Calibration technologists and technicians and engineering technologists and technicians, except drafters, all other

17-3098

Associate's degree

None

None

Animal scientists

19-1011

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Food scientists and technologists

19-1012

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Soil and plant scientists

19-1013

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Biochemists and biophysicists

19-1021

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Microbiologists

19-1022

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Zoologists and wildlife biologists

19-1023

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Biological scientists, all other

19-1029

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Conservation scientists

19-1031

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Foresters

19-1032

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Epidemiologists

19-1041

Master's degree

None

None

Medical scientists, except epidemiologists

19-1042

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Life scientists, all other

19-1099

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Astronomers

19-2011

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Physicists

19-2012

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Atmospheric and space scientists

19-2021

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Chemists

19-2031

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Materials scientists

19-2032

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Environmental scientists and specialists, including health

19-2041

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Geoscientists, except hydrologists and geographers

19-2042

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Hydrologists

19-2043

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Physical scientists, all other

19-2099

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Economists

19-3011

Master's degree

None

None

Survey researchers

19-3022

Master's degree

None

None

Clinical, counseling, and school psychologists

19-3031

Doctoral or professional degree

None

Internship/residency

Industrial-organizational psychologists

19-3032

Master's degree

None

Internship/residency

Psychologists, all other

19-3039

Master's degree

None

Internship/residency

Sociologists

19-3041

Master's degree

None

None

Urban and regional planners

19-3051

Master's degree

None

None

Anthropologists and archeologists

19-3091

Master's degree

None

None

Geographers

19-3092

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Historians

19-3093

Master's degree

None

None

Political scientists

19-3094

Master's degree

None

None

Social scientists and related workers, all other

19-3099

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Agricultural and food science technicians

19-4010

Associate's degree

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Biological technicians

19-4021

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Chemical technicians

19-4031

Associate's degree

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Environmental science and protection technicians, including health

19-4042

Associate's degree

None

None

Geological and hydrologic technicians

19-4045

Associate's degree

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Nuclear technicians

19-4051

Associate's degree

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Social science research assistants

19-4061

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Forest and conservation technicians

19-4071

Associate's degree

None

None

Forensic science technicians

19-4092

Bachelor's degree

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Life, physical, and social science technicians, all other

19-4099

Associate's degree

None

None

Occupational health and safety specialists

19-5011

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Occupational health and safety technicians

19-5012

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Educational, guidance, and career counselors and advisors

21-1012

Master's degree

None

None

Marriage and family therapists

21-1013

Master's degree

None

Internship/residency

Rehabilitation counselors

21-1015

Master's degree

None

None

Substance abuse, behavioral disorder, and mental health counselors

21-1018

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Counselors, all other

21-1019

Master's degree

None

None

Child, family, and school social workers

21-1021

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Healthcare social workers

21-1022

Master's degree

None

Internship/residency

Mental health and substance abuse social workers

21-1023

Master's degree

None

Internship/residency

Social workers, all other

21-1029

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Health education specialists

21-1091

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

21-1092

Bachelor's degree

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Social and human service assistants

21-1093

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Community health workers

21-1094

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Community and social service specialists, all other

21-1099

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Clergy

21-2011

Bachelor's degree

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Directors, religious activities and education

21-2021

Bachelor's degree

Less than 5 years

None

Religious workers, all other

21-2099

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Lawyers

23-1011

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Judicial law clerks

23-1012

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Administrative law judges, adjudicators, and hearing officers

23-1021

Doctoral or professional degree

5 years or more

Short-term on-the-job training

Arbitrators, mediators, and conciliators

23-1022

Bachelor's degree

Less than 5 years

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Judges, magistrate judges, and magistrates

23-1023

Doctoral or professional degree

5 years or more

Short-term on-the-job training

Paralegals and legal assistants

23-2011

Associate's degree

None

None

Title examiners, abstractors, and searchers

23-2093

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Legal support workers, all other

23-2099

Associate's degree

None

None

Business teachers, postsecondary

25-1011

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Computer science teachers, postsecondary

25-1021

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Mathematical science teachers, postsecondary

25-1022

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Architecture teachers, postsecondary

25-1031

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Engineering teachers, postsecondary

25-1032

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Agricultural sciences teachers, postsecondary

25-1041

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Biological science teachers, postsecondary

25-1042

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Forestry and conservation science teachers, postsecondary

25-1043

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Atmospheric, earth, marine, and space sciences teachers, postsecondary

25-1051

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Chemistry teachers, postsecondary

25-1052

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Environmental science teachers, postsecondary

25-1053

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Physics teachers, postsecondary

25-1054

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Anthropology and archeology teachers, postsecondary

25-1061

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Area, ethnic, and cultural studies teachers, postsecondary

25-1062

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Economics teachers, postsecondary

25-1063

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Geography teachers, postsecondary

25-1064

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Political science teachers, postsecondary

25-1065

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Psychology teachers, postsecondary

25-1066

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Sociology teachers, postsecondary

25-1067

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Social sciences teachers, postsecondary, all other

25-1069

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Health specialties teachers, postsecondary

25-1071

Doctoral or professional degree

Less than 5 years

None

Nursing instructors and teachers, postsecondary

25-1072

Doctoral or professional degree

Less than 5 years

None

Education teachers, postsecondary

25-1081

Doctoral or professional degree

Less than 5 years

None

Library science teachers, postsecondary

25-1082

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Criminal justice and law enforcement teachers, postsecondary

25-1111

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Law teachers, postsecondary

25-1112

Doctoral or professional degree

Less than 5 years

None

Social work teachers, postsecondary

25-1113

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Art, drama, and music teachers, postsecondary

25-1121

Master's degree

None

None

Communications teachers, postsecondary

25-1122

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

English language and literature teachers, postsecondary

25-1123

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Foreign language and literature teachers, postsecondary

25-1124

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

History teachers, postsecondary

25-1125

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Philosophy and religion teachers, postsecondary

25-1126

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Family and consumer sciences teachers, postsecondary

25-1192

Master's degree

None

None

Recreation and fitness studies teachers, postsecondary

25-1193

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Career/technical education teachers, postsecondary

25-1194

Bachelor's degree

Less than 5 years

None

Postsecondary teachers, all other

25-1199

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Preschool teachers, except special education

25-2011

Associate's degree

None

None

Kindergarten teachers, except special education

25-2012

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Elementary school teachers, except special education

25-2021

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Middle school teachers, except special and career/technical education

25-2022

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Career/technical education teachers, middle school

25-2023

Bachelor's degree

Less than 5 years

None

Secondary school teachers, except special and career/technical education

25-2031

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Career/technical education teachers, secondary school

25-2032

Bachelor's degree

Less than 5 years

None

Special education teachers, preschool

25-2051

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Special education teachers, kindergarten and elementary school

25-2052

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Special education teachers, middle school

25-2057

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Special education teachers, secondary school

25-2058

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Special education teachers, all other

25-2059

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Adult basic education, adult secondary education, and English as a Second Language instructors

25-3011

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Self-enrichment teachers

25-3021

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

None

Substitute teachers, short-term

25-3031

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Tutors and teachers and instructors, all other

25-3097

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Archivists

25-4011

Master's degree

None

None

Curators

25-4012

Master's degree

None

None

Museum technicians and conservators

25-4013

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Librarians and media collections specialists

25-4022

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Library technicians

25-4031

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

None

Farm and home management educators

25-9021

Master's degree

None

None

Instructional coordinators

25-9031

Master's degree

5 years or more

None

Teaching assistants, postsecondary

25-9044

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Teaching assistants, except postsecondary

25-9045

Some college, no degree

None

None

Educational instruction and library workers, all other

25-9099

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Art directors

27-1011

Bachelor's degree

5 years or more

None

Craft artists

27-1012

No formal educational credential

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Fine artists, including painters, sculptors, and illustrators

27-1013

Bachelor's degree

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Special effects artists and animators

27-1014

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Artists and related workers, all other

27-1019

No formal educational credential

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Commercial and industrial designers

27-1021

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Fashion designers

27-1022

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Floral designers

27-1023

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Graphic designers

27-1024

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Interior designers

27-1025

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Merchandise displayers and window trimmers

27-1026

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Set and exhibit designers

27-1027

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Designers, all other

27-1029

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Actors

27-2011

Some college, no degree

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Producers and directors

27-2012

Bachelor's degree

Less than 5 years

None

Athletes and sports competitors

27-2021

No formal educational credential

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Coaches and scouts

27-2022

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Umpires, referees, and other sports officials

27-2023

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Dancers

27-2031

No formal educational credential

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Choreographers

27-2032

High school diploma or equivalent

5 years or more

Long-term on-the-job training

Music directors and composers

27-2041

Bachelor's degree

Less than 5 years

None

Musicians and singers

27-2042

No formal educational credential

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Miscellaneous entertainers and performers, sports and related workers

27-2090

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Broadcast announcers and radio disc jockeys

27-3011

Bachelor's degree

None

None

News analysts, reporters, and journalists

27-3023

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Public relations specialists

27-3031

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Editors

27-3041

Bachelor's degree

Less than 5 years

None

Technical writers

27-3042

Bachelor's degree

Less than 5 years

Short-term on-the-job training

Writers and authors

27-3043

Bachelor's degree

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Interpreters and translators

27-3091

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Court reporters and simultaneous captioners

27-3092

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Media and communication workers, all other

27-3099

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Audio and video technicians

27-4011

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Broadcast technicians

27-4012

Associate's degree

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Sound engineering technicians

27-4014

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Photographers

27-4021

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Camera operators, television, video, and film

27-4031

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Film and video editors

27-4032

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Lighting technicians and media and communication equipment workers, all other

27-4098

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Chiropractors

29-1011

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Dentists, general

29-1021

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Oral and maxillofacial surgeons

29-1022

Doctoral or professional degree

None

Internship/residency

Orthodontists

29-1023

Doctoral or professional degree

None

Internship/residency

Prosthodontists

29-1024

Doctoral or professional degree

None

Internship/residency

Dentists, all other specialists

29-1029

Doctoral or professional degree

None

Internship/residency

Dietitians and nutritionists

29-1031

Bachelor's degree

None

Internship/residency

Optometrists

29-1041

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Pharmacists

29-1051

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Physician assistants

29-1071

Master's degree

None

None

Podiatrists

29-1081

Doctoral or professional degree

None

Internship/residency

Occupational therapists

29-1122

Master's degree

None

None

Physical therapists

29-1123

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Radiation therapists

29-1124

Associate's degree

None

None

Recreational therapists

29-1125

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Respiratory therapists

29-1126

Associate's degree

None

None

Speech-language pathologists

29-1127

Master's degree

None

Internship/residency

Exercise physiologists

29-1128

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Therapists, all other

29-1129

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Veterinarians

29-1131

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Registered nurses

29-1141

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Nurse anesthetists

29-1151

Master's degree

None

None

Nurse midwives

29-1161

Master's degree

None

None

Nurse practitioners

29-1171

Master's degree

None

None

Audiologists

29-1181

Doctoral or professional degree

None

None

Anesthesiologists

29-1211

Doctoral or professional degree

None

Internship/residency

Family medicine physicians

29-1215

Doctoral or professional degree

None

Internship/residency

General internal medicine physicians

29-1216

Doctoral or professional degree

None

Internship/residency

Obstetricians and gynecologists

29-1218

Doctoral or professional degree

None

Internship/residency

Pediatricians, general

29-1221

Doctoral or professional degree

None

Internship/residency

Psychiatrists

29-1223

Doctoral or professional degree

None

Internship/residency

Physicians, all other; and ophthalmologists, except pediatric

29-1228

Doctoral or professional degree

None

Internship/residency

Surgeons, except ophthalmologists

29-1248

Doctoral or professional degree

None

Internship/residency

Dental hygienists

29-1292

Associate's degree

None

None

Acupuncturists and healthcare diagnosing or treating practitioners, all other

29-1298

Master's degree

None

None

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

29-2010

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Cardiovascular technologists and technicians

29-2031

Associate's degree

None

None

Diagnostic medical sonographers

29-2032

Associate's degree

None

None

Nuclear medicine technologists

29-2033

Associate's degree

None

None

Radiologic technologists and technicians

29-2034

Associate's degree

None

None

Magnetic resonance imaging technologists

29-2035

Associate's degree

Less than 5 years

None

Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

29-2040

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

None

Dietetic technicians

29-2051

Associate's degree

None

None

Pharmacy technicians

29-2052

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Psychiatric technicians

29-2053

Postsecondary nondegree award

Less than 5 years

Short-term on-the-job training

Surgical technologists

29-2055

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

None

Veterinary technologists and technicians

29-2056

Associate's degree

None

None

Ophthalmic medical technicians

29-2057

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

None

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

29-2061

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

None

Opticians, dispensing

29-2081

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Orthotists and prosthetists

29-2091

Master's degree

None

Internship/residency

Hearing aid specialists

29-2092

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Medical dosimetrists, medical records specialists, and health technologists and technicians, all other

29-2098

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

None

Athletic trainers

29-9091

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Genetic counselors

29-9092

Master's degree

None

None

Health information technologists, medical registrars, surgical assistants, and healthcare practitioners and technical workers, all other

29-9098

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

None

Home health and personal care aides

31-1120

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Nursing assistants

31-1131

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

None

Orderlies

31-1132

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Psychiatric aides

31-1133

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Occupational therapy assistants

31-2011

Associate's degree

None

None

Occupational therapy aides

31-2012

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Physical therapist assistants

31-2021

Associate's degree

None

None

Physical therapist aides

31-2022

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Massage therapists

31-9011

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

None

Dental assistants

31-9091

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

None

Medical assistants

31-9092

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

None

Medical equipment preparers

31-9093

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Medical transcriptionists

31-9094

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

None

Pharmacy aides

31-9095

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers

31-9096

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Phlebotomists

31-9097

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

None

Healthcare support workers, all other

31-9099

High school diploma or equivalent

None

None

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

33-1011

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

None

First-line supervisors of police and detectives

33-1012

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

Moderate-term on-the-job training

First-line supervisors of firefighting and prevention workers

33-1021

Postsecondary nondegree award

Less than 5 years

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Miscellaneous first-line supervisors, protective service workers

33-1090

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

None

Firefighters

33-2011

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Fire inspectors and investigators

33-2021

Postsecondary nondegree award

5 years or more

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Forest fire inspectors and prevention specialists

33-2022

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Bailiffs

33-3011

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Correctional officers and jailers

33-3012

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Detectives and criminal investigators

33-3021

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Fish and game wardens

33-3031

Bachelor's degree

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Parking enforcement workers

33-3041

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Police and sheriff's patrol officers

33-3051

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Transit and railroad police

33-3052

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Animal control workers

33-9011

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Private detectives and investigators

33-9021

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Gambling surveillance officers and gambling investigators

33-9031

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Security guards

33-9032

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Crossing guards and flaggers

33-9091

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Lifeguards, ski patrol, and other recreational protective service workers

33-9092

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Transportation security screeners

33-9093

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

School bus monitors and protective service workers, all other

33-9098

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Chefs and head cooks

35-1011

High school diploma or equivalent

5 years or more

None

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

35-1012

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

None

Cooks, fast food

35-2011

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Cooks, institution and cafeteria

35-2012

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Cooks, private household

35-2013

Postsecondary nondegree award

Less than 5 years

None

Cooks, restaurant

35-2014

No formal educational credential

Less than 5 years

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Cooks, short order

35-2015

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Cooks, all other

35-2019

No formal educational credential

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Food preparation workers

35-2021

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Bartenders

35-3011

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Fast food and counter workers

35-3023

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Waiters and waitresses

35-3031

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Food servers, nonrestaurant

35-3041

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

35-9011

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Dishwashers

35-9021

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

35-9031

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Food preparation and serving related workers, all other

35-9099

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

37-1011

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

None

First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers

37-1012

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

None

Janitors and cleaners, except maids and housekeeping cleaners

37-2011

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

37-2012

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Building cleaning workers, all other

37-2019

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Pest control workers

37-2021

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Landscaping and groundskeeping workers

37-3011

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Pesticide handlers, sprayers, and applicators, vegetation

37-3012

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Tree trimmers and pruners

37-3013

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Grounds maintenance workers, all other

37-3019

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

First-line supervisors of gambling services workers

39-1013

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

None

First-line supervisors of personal service and entertainment and recreation workers, except gambling services

39-1098

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

None

Animal trainers

39-2011

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Animal caretakers

39-2021

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Gambling dealers

39-3011

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Gambling and sports book writers and runners

39-3012

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Gambling service workers, all other

39-3019

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Motion picture projectionists

39-3021

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

39-3031

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Amusement and recreation attendants

39-3091

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Costume attendants

39-3092

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Locker room, coatroom, and dressing room attendants

39-3093

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Entertainment attendants and related workers, all other

39-3099

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Embalmers

39-4011

Associate's degree

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Funeral attendants

39-4021

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Morticians, undertakers, and funeral arrangers

39-4031

Associate's degree

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Barbers

39-5011

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

None

Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

39-5012

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

None

Makeup artists, theatrical and performance

39-5091

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

None

Manicurists and pedicurists

39-5092

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

None

Shampooers

39-5093

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Skincare specialists

39-5094

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

None

Baggage porters and bellhops

39-6011

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Concierges

39-6012

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Tour and travel guides

39-7010

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Childcare workers

39-9011

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Exercise trainers and group fitness instructors

39-9031

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Recreation workers

39-9032

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Residential advisors

39-9041

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Crematory operators and personal care and service workers, all other

39-9098

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

41-1011

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

None

First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers

41-1012

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

None

Cashiers

41-2011

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Gambling change persons and booth cashiers

41-2012

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Counter and rental clerks

41-2021

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Parts salespersons

41-2022

No formal educational credential

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Retail salespersons

41-2031

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Advertising sales agents

41-3011

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Insurance sales agents

41-3021

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

41-3031

Bachelor's degree

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Travel agents

41-3041

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Sales representatives of services, except advertising, insurance, financial services, and travel

41-3091

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing, technical and scientific products

41-4011

Bachelor's degree

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing, except technical and scientific products

41-4012

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Demonstrators and product promoters

41-9011

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Models

41-9012

No formal educational credential

None

None

Real estate brokers

41-9021

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

None

Real estate sales agents

41-9022

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Sales engineers

41-9031

Bachelor's degree

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Telemarketers

41-9041

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers

41-9091

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Sales and related workers, all other

41-9099

High school diploma or equivalent

None

None

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

None

Switchboard operators, including answering service

43-2011

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Telephone operators

43-2021

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Communications equipment operators, all other

43-2099

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Bill and account collectors

43-3011

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Billing and posting clerks

43-3021

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

43-3031

Some college, no degree

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Gambling cage workers

43-3041

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Payroll and timekeeping clerks

43-3051

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Procurement clerks

43-3061

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Tellers

43-3071

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Financial clerks, all other

43-3099

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Brokerage clerks

43-4011

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Correspondence clerks

43-4021

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Court, municipal, and license clerks

43-4031

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks

43-4041

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Customer service representatives

43-4051

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Eligibility interviewers, government programs

43-4061

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

File clerks

43-4071

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

43-4081

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Interviewers, except eligibility and loan

43-4111

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Library assistants, clerical

43-4121

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Loan interviewers and clerks

43-4131

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

New accounts clerks

43-4141

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Order clerks

43-4151

Some college, no degree

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

43-4161

Associate's degree

None

None

Receptionists and information clerks

43-4171

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks

43-4181

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Information and record clerks, all other

43-4199

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Cargo and freight agents

43-5011

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Couriers and messengers

43-5021

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Public safety telecommunicators

43-5031

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Dispatchers, except police, fire, and ambulance

43-5032

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Meter readers, utilities

43-5041

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Postal service clerks

43-5051

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Postal service mail carriers

43-5052

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators

43-5053

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Production, planning, and expediting clerks

43-5061

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Shipping, receiving, and inventory clerks

43-5071

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping

43-5111

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants

43-6011

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

None

Legal secretaries and administrative assistants

43-6012

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Medical secretaries and administrative assistants

43-6013

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive

43-6014

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Data entry keyers

43-9021

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Word processors and typists

43-9022

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Desktop publishers

43-9031

Associate's degree

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Insurance claims and policy processing clerks

43-9041

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service

43-9051

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Office clerks, general

43-9061

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Office machine operators, except computer

43-9071

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Proofreaders and copy markers

43-9081

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Statistical assistants

43-9111

Bachelor's degree

None

None

Office and administrative support workers, all other

43-9199

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

First-line supervisors of farming, fishing, and forestry workers

45-1011

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

None

Agricultural inspectors

45-2011

Bachelor's degree

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Animal breeders

45-2021

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Graders and sorters, agricultural products

45-2041

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Agricultural equipment operators

45-2091

No formal educational credential

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Farmworkers and laborers, crop, nursery, and greenhouse

45-2092

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Farmworkers, farm, ranch, and aquacultural animals

45-2093

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Agricultural workers, all other

45-2099

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Fishing and hunting workers

45-3031

No formal educational credential

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Forest and conservation workers

45-4011

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Fallers

45-4021

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Logging equipment operators

45-4022

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Log graders and scalers

45-4023

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Logging workers, all other

45-4029

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers

47-1011

High school diploma or equivalent

5 years or more

None

Boilermakers

47-2011

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Apprenticeship

Brickmasons and blockmasons

47-2021

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Apprenticeship

Stonemasons

47-2022

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Apprenticeship

Carpenters

47-2031

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Apprenticeship

Carpet installers

47-2041

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Floor layers, except carpet, wood, and hard tiles

47-2042

No formal educational credential

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Floor sanders and finishers

47-2043

No formal educational credential

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Tile and stone setters

47-2044

No formal educational credential

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Cement masons and concrete finishers

47-2051

No formal educational credential

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Terrazzo workers and finishers

47-2053

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Apprenticeship

Construction laborers

47-2061

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators

47-2071

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Pile driver operators

47-2072

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators

47-2073

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Drywall and ceiling tile installers

47-2081

No formal educational credential

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Tapers

47-2082

No formal educational credential

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Electricians

47-2111

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Apprenticeship

Glaziers

47-2121

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Apprenticeship

Insulation workers, floor, ceiling, and wall

47-2131

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Insulation workers, mechanical

47-2132

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Apprenticeship

Painters, construction and maintenance

47-2141

No formal educational credential

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Paperhangers

47-2142

No formal educational credential

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Pipelayers

47-2151

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters

47-2152

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Apprenticeship

Plasterers and stucco masons

47-2161

No formal educational credential

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Reinforcing iron and rebar workers

47-2171

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Apprenticeship

Roofers

47-2181

No formal educational credential

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Sheet metal workers

47-2211

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Apprenticeship

Structural iron and steel workers

47-2221

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Apprenticeship

Solar photovoltaic installers

47-2231

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Helpers--brickmasons, blockmasons, stonemasons, and tile and marble setters

47-3011

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Helpers--carpenters

47-3012

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Helpers--electricians

47-3013

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Helpers--painters, paperhangers, plasterers, and stucco masons

47-3014

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Helpers--pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters

47-3015

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Helpers--roofers

47-3016

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Helpers, construction trades, all other

47-3019

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Construction and building inspectors

47-4011

High school diploma or equivalent

5 years or more

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Elevator and escalator installers and repairers

47-4021

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Apprenticeship

Fence erectors

47-4031

No formal educational credential

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Hazardous materials removal workers

47-4041

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Highway maintenance workers

47-4051

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators

47-4061

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners

47-4071

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Miscellaneous construction and related workers

47-4090

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Derrick operators, oil and gas

47-5011

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Rotary drill operators, oil and gas

47-5012

No formal educational credential

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Service unit operators, oil and gas

47-5013

No formal educational credential

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Excavating and loading machine and dragline operators, surface mining

47-5022

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Continuous mining machine operators

47-5041

No formal educational credential

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Roof bolters, mining

47-5043

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Loading and moving machine operators, underground mining

47-5044

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Rock splitters, quarry

47-5051

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Roustabouts, oil and gas

47-5071

No formal educational credential

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Helpers--extraction workers

47-5081

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Earth drillers, except oil and gas; and explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters

47-5097

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

Long-term on-the-job training

Underground mining machine operators and extraction workers, all other

47-5098

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers, and repairers

49-1011

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

None

Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers

49-2011

Some college, no degree

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Radio, cellular, and tower equipment installers and repairers

49-2021

Associate's degree

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Telecommunications equipment installers and repairers, except line installers

49-2022

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Avionics technicians

49-2091

Associate's degree

None

None

Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers

49-2092

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment

49-2093

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Electrical and electronics repairers, commercial and industrial equipment

49-2094

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Electrical and electronics repairers, powerhouse, substation, and relay

49-2095

Postsecondary nondegree award

Less than 5 years

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

49-2096

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Audiovisual equipment installers and repairers

49-2097

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Security and fire alarm systems installers

49-2098

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Aircraft mechanics and service technicians

49-3011

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

None

Automotive body and related repairers

49-3021

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Automotive glass installers and repairers

49-3022

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

49-3023

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

49-3031

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Farm equipment mechanics and service technicians

49-3041

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Mobile heavy equipment mechanics, except engines

49-3042

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Rail car repairers

49-3043

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Motorboat mechanics and service technicians

49-3051

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Motorcycle mechanics

49-3052

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Outdoor power equipment and other small engine mechanics

49-3053

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Bicycle repairers

49-3091

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Recreational vehicle service technicians

49-3092

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Tire repairers and changers

49-3093

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Mechanical door repairers

49-9011

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Control and valve installers and repairers, except mechanical door

49-9012

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers

49-9021

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Home appliance repairers

49-9031

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Millwrights

49-9044

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Apprenticeship

Refractory materials repairers, except brickmasons

49-9045

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Electrical power-line installers and repairers

49-9051

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Telecommunications line installers and repairers

49-9052

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Camera and photographic equipment repairers

49-9061

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Medical equipment repairers

49-9062

Associate's degree

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Musical instrument repairers and tuners

49-9063

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Apprenticeship

Watch and clock repairers

49-9064

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Precision instrument and equipment repairers, all other

49-9069

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Maintenance and repair workers, general

49-9071

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Wind turbine service technicians

49-9081

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers

49-9091

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Commercial divers

49-9092

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Locksmiths and safe repairers

49-9094

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Manufactured building and mobile home installers

49-9095

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Riggers

49-9096

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Signal and track switch repairers

49-9097

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Helpers--installation, maintenance, and repair workers

49-9098

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Installation, maintenance, and repair workers, all other

49-9099

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

51-1011

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

None

Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers

51-2011

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Coil winders, tapers, and finishers

51-2021

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Electrical, electronic, and electromechanical assemblers, except coil winders, tapers, and finishers

51-2028

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Engine and other machine assemblers

51-2031

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

51-2041

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Fiberglass laminators and fabricators

51-2051

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Timing device assemblers and adjusters

51-2061

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators

51-2090

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Bakers

51-3011

No formal educational credential

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Butchers and meat cutters

51-3021

No formal educational credential

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Meat, poultry, and fish cutters and trimmers

51-3022

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Slaughterers and meat packers

51-3023

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders

51-3091

No formal educational credential

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Food batchmakers

51-3092

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Food cooking machine operators and tenders

51-3093

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Food processing workers, all other

51-3099

No formal educational credential

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4021

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4022

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4023

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4031

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4032

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4033

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4034

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4035

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Machinists

51-4041

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Metal-refining furnace operators and tenders

51-4051

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Pourers and casters, metal

51-4052

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Model makers, metal and plastic

51-4061

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Patternmakers, metal and plastic

51-4062

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Foundry mold and coremakers

51-4071

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Molding, coremaking, and casting machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4072

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4081

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Tool and die makers

51-4111

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Welders, cutters, solderers, and brazers

51-4121

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Welding, soldering, and brazing machine setters, operators, and tenders

51-4122

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4191

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Layout workers, metal and plastic

51-4192

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Plating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4193

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners

51-4194

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Metal workers and plastic workers, all other

51-4199

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Prepress technicians and workers

51-5111

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

None

Printing press operators

51-5112

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Print binding and finishing workers

51-5113

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

51-6011

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

51-6021

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Sewing machine operators

51-6031

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Shoe and leather workers and repairers

51-6041

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Shoe machine operators and tenders

51-6042

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Sewers, hand

51-6051

No formal educational credential

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Tailors, dressmakers, and custom sewers

51-6052

No formal educational credential

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders

51-6061

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders

51-6062

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders

51-6063

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders

51-6064

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers

51-6091

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Fabric and apparel patternmakers

51-6092

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Upholsterers

51-6093

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other

51-6099

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

51-7011

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Furniture finishers

51-7021

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Model makers, wood

51-7031

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Patternmakers, wood

51-7032

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood

51-7041

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing

51-7042

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Woodworkers, all other

51-7099

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Nuclear power reactor operators

51-8011

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Power distributors and dispatchers

51-8012

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Power plant operators

51-8013

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Stationary engineers and boiler operators

51-8021

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

51-8031

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Chemical plant and system operators

51-8091

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Gas plant operators

51-8092

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Petroleum pump system operators, refinery operators, and gaugers

51-8093

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Plant and system operators, all other

51-8099

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Chemical equipment operators and tenders

51-9011

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Separating, filtering, clarifying, precipitating, and still machine setters, operators, and tenders

51-9012

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Crushing, grinding, and polishing machine setters, operators, and tenders

51-9021

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Grinding and polishing workers, hand

51-9022

No formal educational credential

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Mixing and blending machine setters, operators, and tenders

51-9023

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Cutters and trimmers, hand

51-9031

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Cutting and slicing machine setters, operators, and tenders

51-9032

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

51-9041

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders

51-9051

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

51-9061

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers

51-9071

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Dental laboratory technicians

51-9081

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Medical appliance technicians

51-9082

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Ophthalmic laboratory technicians

51-9083

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

51-9111

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Painting, coating, and decorating workers

51-9123

No formal educational credential

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Coating, painting, and spraying machine setters, operators, and tenders

51-9124

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Semiconductor processing technicians

51-9141

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

51-9151

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Computer numerically controlled tool operators

51-9161

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Computer numerically controlled tool programmers

51-9162

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

51-9191

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders

51-9192

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders

51-9193

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Etchers and engravers

51-9194

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

51-9195

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

51-9196

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Tire builders

51-9197

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Helpers--production workers

51-9198

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Production workers, all other

51-9199

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Aircraft cargo handling supervisors

53-1041

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

None

First-line supervisors of transportation and material-moving workers, except aircraft cargo handling supervisors

53-1047

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

None

Airline pilots, copilots, and flight engineers

53-2011

Bachelor's degree

Less than 5 years

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Commercial pilots

53-2012

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Air traffic controllers

53-2021

Associate's degree

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Airfield operations specialists

53-2022

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Long-term on-the-job training

Flight attendants

53-2031

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians

53-3011

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Driver/sales workers

53-3031

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers

53-3032

Postsecondary nondegree award

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Light truck drivers

53-3033

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Bus drivers, transit and intercity

53-3052

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Passenger vehicle drivers, except bus drivers, transit and intercity

53-3058

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Motor vehicle operators, all other

53-3099

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Locomotive engineers

53-4011

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Rail yard engineers, dinkey operators, and hostlers

53-4013

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators and locomotive firers

53-4022

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Railroad conductors and yardmasters

53-4031

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Subway and streetcar operators

53-4041

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Rail transportation workers, all other

53-4099

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Sailors and marine oilers

53-5011

No formal educational credential

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Captains, mates, and pilots of water vessels

53-5021

Postsecondary nondegree award

Less than 5 years

None

Motorboat operators

53-5022

Postsecondary nondegree award

Less than 5 years

None

Ship engineers

53-5031

Postsecondary nondegree award

Less than 5 years

None

Bridge and lock tenders

53-6011

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Parking attendants

53-6021

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Automotive and watercraft service attendants

53-6031

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Traffic technicians

53-6041

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Transportation inspectors

53-6051

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Passenger attendants

53-6061

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Aircraft service attendants and transportation workers, all other

53-6098

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Conveyor operators and tenders

53-7011

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Crane and tower operators

53-7021

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Dredge operators

53-7031

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Hoist and winch operators

53-7041

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Industrial truck and tractor operators

53-7051

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Cleaners of vehicles and equipment

53-7061

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

53-7062

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Machine feeders and offbearers

53-7063

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Packers and packagers, hand

53-7064

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Stockers and order fillers

53-7065

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Gas compressor and gas pumping station operators

53-7071

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Pump operators, except wellhead pumpers

53-7072

High school diploma or equivalent

None

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Wellhead pumpers

53-7073

High school diploma or equivalent

Less than 5 years

Moderate-term on-the-job training

Refuse and recyclable material collectors

53-7081

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Tank car, truck, and ship loaders

53-7121

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Material moving workers, all other

53-7199

No formal educational credential

None

Short-term on-the-job training

Source: Employment Projections program, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

Back to top

Last Modified Date: September 1, 2020